The alates of
started settling on wheat during first week of January (standard week 1) simultaneously with the activity of its predator,
. However, the population density of this predator at this stage was very less. From standard week 5, the aphid population started increasing steadily and colonies of alates and apterous aphids were seen on leaves and stem. Middle of February to the start of March was the most favourable period for multiplication of this pest. The maximum population of cereal aphid was observed during standard week 10 (second week of March), when wheat (
) crop was in earing stage and the temperature was between 8.5 and 23.1° C along with a relative humidity of 45.7 to 88.3 per cent. The aphid started declining gradually during following weeks, finally disappearing by second week of April (standard week 15). Its predator,
was observed feeding on aphid colonies during standard week 4, which increased steadily till middle of April, when the aphid population started declining. This asynchrony in their population pattern in wheat crop is being contemplated to be the major cause of flare up of the population of this pest. The correlation drawn between different stages of predator and aphid population revealed that the collective contribution of these factors was 93.92 per cent. Abiotic (temperature and relative humidity) and biotic (predator) factors were observed to be significantly influencing the aphid population in this crop ecosystem.
Indoor air quality is a major part of indoor environmental quality and plays an important role in creating sustainable and healthy indoor environments. Well-being, health and comfort are affected by indoor air quality. The measurements that are introduced in this research paper were used to record the results of three different residential interiors. These data are a part of a larger scale research project that included the evaluation of residential buildings, offices, university interiors and for instance nurseries. The reason behind conducting the measurements in these interiors was that in all of the examples inadequate indoor air quality and therefore human discomfort, illness and also building failure occurred.
In this paper the theoretical background of the research and the measurement of indoor air quality (indoor air temperature, relative humidity level and carbon dioxide level) will be introduced. The poor indoor air quality in these buildings is a result of a complex system. The thermal bridges of the facade cause cold interior surfaces, the airtight solutions cause high relative humidity levels. These two combined result in mould appearance. Besides, the lack of appropriate ventilation rate can be the third part of the reason behind poor indoor air quality.
Based on the results of the measurement data, different solutions are suggested in each case to improve indoor environmental and air quality, in accordance with creating healthier indoor environments.
The present paper focuses on the re-evaluation of archive engineering geological data of sic core drillings at one of the new metro stations of Budapest (Kálvin square, metro line 4). More than 1000 data of total coring length of more than 210 meters were used for statistical calculations. The data set includes index of plasticity, skewness, void ratio, water content, dry and water saturated bulk density, relative humidity, angle of friction, cohesion and compressive strength. Based on the data set the engineering geological description of sediments was reevaluated, and sand, clay, silt and bentonite-rich horizons were identified. Three new crosssections were prepared. Statistical analyses proved that there is an increase in cohesion and density of clays and silts with depth, indicating the role of consolidation.
Authors:M. Marečić, F. Jović, V. Kosar, and V. Tomašić
This work deals with the photocatalytic oxidation of toluene at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in the gas phase. The differential equations of the reactor model are solved numerically with simultaneous estimation of the model parameters. Estimation of the kinetic data is performed using a modified differential method of data analysis and a Nelder–Mead method of nonlinear optimization for parameter estimation. The reaction is performed in an annular photoreactor using UVA black light blue fluorescent lamp. The experiments are carried out at different total flow rates of the reaction feed (20–160 cm3 min−1), two different inlet concentrations of toluene (2.67 and 5.24 g m−3) and at constant relative humidity (25%). A good agreement between the experimental data and theoretical predictions is obtained, supporting the applicability of the proposed models to describe the investigated process performed in laboratory annular photoreactor.
Authors:L. Barral, J. Cano, A. J. López, J. López, P. Nogueira, and C. Ramírez
The diffusive and dynamic mechanical behavior of the DGEBA/1,3-BAC epoxy resin system was studied during water absorption. The diffusion of water was investigated at 100% relative humidity, by immersion of specimens in water at 60, 80 and 100°C. In all absorption experiments, water diffusion followed Fick's law. Diffusion coefficients and saturated water concentrations are given for these temperatures. The activation energy for diffusion was determined from the relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. The value obtained was 31.2 kJ mol−1. Dynamic mechanical analysis of samples immersed in 100°C water and with various water contents showed both a shift of Tg, defined by thetanδ peak, to lower temperatures and a slight decrease in the dynamic modulus in the presence of water. These effects are probably a result of plasticization.
A method is proposed which, through the monitoring and modeling of the diurnal variation of α-radioactivity in the air near
the ground, appears with a potential in enhancing the measurement of low radioactivity unexpected peaks over the natural background.
Portable field instrumentation was used for the monitoring which further included the total γ-radiation at ground level, the
relative humidity and temperature. The variation of the α-radioactivity follows a periodic form with peaks in the morning
and in the afternoon. The applicability of a mathematical model to describe this variation of the α-radioactivity in terms
of the meteorological variables and the γ-radiation was tested positive. This could reduce the difference between the measured
and modeled periodic variation to an almost flat one, above which sudden unexpected peaks of radioactivity from possible undeclared
nuclear activities could be easier identified.
Airborne concentration levels of222Rn and its progeny, and220Rn progeny were measured in an underground U mine. In addition, concurrent measurements of several meteorological variables such as temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and airflow rate were also carried out. Mining operations and mining activities during the measurements were carefully noted. The data collected show great variability. Although not particularly strong, some definite correlations could be found between airborne radioactivity concentration levels, meteorological variables, and mining operations (and mining activities). The difficulty in obtaining stronger correlations between the above variables is attributed to the great and simultaneous variability of most of the variables measured. The data presented here are typical of active U–Th mining environments, i.e., of Ontario (Canada) underground U mines. Measurements extended for a period of a full calendar year and involved several thousand independent measurements.
Authors:A. Kumar, Y. Gautam, V. Kumar, K. Rao, S. Sharma, A. Sharma, and A. Hegde
Knowledge of the dynamics of HTO in leafy plant–soil system is required to verify models, such as the NORMTRI code, which
predict environmental tritium following its release. Tritium concentrations in plants has been evaluated using the code NORMTRI
and experimentally by collection of samples of different plants and their soils samples. In the present study, major seasonal
crop plants i.e. wheat, mustard, sugar cane, coriander, spinach, potato, were collected beyond Narora Atomic Power Station
site boundary and gular, arandi, neem, ashok, amaltas, csuarina leaf samples within NAPS site boundary for analysis of HTO
content. Data analysis indicated that HTO in leaf is strongly influenced by atmospheric relative humidity and type of the
Proper understanding of sorption behaviour of the materials is important from the point of view of fundamental research and technology as well for applied building technology. In this paper a simple method is presented for measuring water sorption capability of solid bodies. Moisture sorption and desorption measurements were carried out on soil samples by using climatic chamber. After drying the samples in a Venticell 111 type drying equipment they were treated with a Climacell 111 type climate chamber, where the relative humidity (RH) was varied from 40 to 83% at 22°C for different times (40, 80, 120 and 240 minutes). The samples reached the equilibrium moisture content after 120 minutes for sorption. The desorption isotherm measurements were carried out at 22°C for 80 minutes of exposure at constant RH. At this point hysteresis phenomenon was observed. Besides the moisture content figures the time evolution of the damping process is also presented in this paper.
Authors:R. Filho, P. Franco, E. Conceição, and M. Leles
A new formulation of nifedipine tablets was prepared. The tablets were conditioned in amber-colored glass containers and placed
in a climatized room at 40 °C and relative humidity of 75% for 180 days. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry
(TG) were used in order to evaluate the thermal properties of nifedipine, the excipients and two well-known nifedipine degradation
products. There is no evidence of interaction between nifedipine and excipients or degradation products. High performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used in the dosage of nifedipine tablets before and after acclimatized exposure. Results
show that DSC and TG offer important data for a more detailed assessment of the stability of a pharmaceutical formulation.