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An extruded product was made based on oats and dried green pea using central composite rotatable design. Effects of incorporation level of oat flour (OF, 15.86 to 44.14%) and dried green pea flour (DGPF, 7.93 to 22.07%) on the physical and functional characteristics of extruded products based on composite flour were studied using response surface methodology. Second order polynomial equation was used to describe the effect of OF and DGPF on lateral expansion (LE), bulk density (BD), water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI), and hardness (HD). Results indicated that OF had negative effect on LE, while positive effect on BD, WSI, WAI, and HD. On increasing DGPF, LE and WSI increased, but it had negative effect on BD, WAI, and HD. Numerical optimization resulted in 41.91% OF and 7.93% DGPF to produce acceptable extrudates. The results suggest that oats and dried green pea flour can be extruded with rice flour and corn flour into an acceptable snack food.

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The objective of this study was to develop a new rapid and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the estimation of rivaroxaban (RRB) in tablet dosage form using a quality by design approach. Chromatography was performed using a pre-coated silica gel aluminum plate 60 F254 (10 cm × 10 cm) as the stationary phase and toluene–methanol (7:3, V/V) as the mobile phase. Detection was carried out at 250 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed r2 > 0.99 with a concentration range from 100–600 ng per band. A Box-Behnken experimental design with a response surface methodology was applied to study the effects of chamber saturation time, band length, and solvent front on the R F value and area of RRB. The R F value was predicted to be 0.63 ± 0.05 for RRB to optimize the chromatographic conditions based on the preliminary trials. The optimized HPTLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline Q2 (R1). The results of this study indicate that the quality by design (QbD) concept could be effectively applied to optimize a HPTLC method with a minimum number of experimental runs. The developed HPTLC method was successfully applied for routine analysis of RRB in tablet dosage form.

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Alpha keto acids are important food additives, which commonly produced by microbial deamination of amino acids. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was enhanced in 2-l bench scale bioreactors by optimizing of fermentation medium composition using the Box-Behnken Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Optimum glucose, yeast extract, and phenylalanine concentrations were determined to be 119.4 g 1−1, 3.7 g 1−1, and 14.8 g 1−1, respectively, for PPA production, and 163.8 g 1−1, 10.8 g 1−1, and 9.8 g 1−1, respectively, for biomass production. Under these optimum conditions, PPA concentration was enhanced to 1349 mg 1−1, which was 28% and 276% higher than the unoptimized bioreactor and shake-flask fermentations, respectively. Moreover, P. vulgaris biomass concentration was optimized at 4.36 g 1−1, which was 34% higher than under the unoptimized bioreactor condition. Overall, this study demonstrated that optimization of the fermentation media improved PPA concentration and biomass production in bench scale bioreactors compared to previous studies in the literature and sets the stage for scale up to industrial production.

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Phiarais, B.P., Schehl, B.D., Oliviera, J.C. & Arendt, E.K. (2006): Use of response surface methodology to investigate the effectiveness of commercial enzymes on buckwheat malt for brewing purposes. J. Inst. Brewing , 112 , 324

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A robust and eco-friendly stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the stability study of thiocolchicoside using analytical quality-by-design approach. Full factorial design was used for screening potential variables affecting method development. Box‒Behnken design was used subsequently for investigation of the main, interactive, and quadratic effects of these variables on response. Four potential variables were selected on the basis of scientific knowledge for the development of a method for the stability study of thiocolchicoside. The selected potential factors, namely, volume of water (mL), saturation time (min), migration distance (mm), and volume of mobile phase (mL) were screened by 24 full factorial designs by selecting resolution as a critical method attribute. Pareto chart analysis showed that 3 variables, namely, volume of water (mL), saturation time (mm), and migration distance (mm), out of 4 potential variables were significantly affecting the response variable (resolution). Optimization with response surface methodology further clarified the relationship between critical variables and resolution using Box–Behnken design. The experimental design model was found to be quadratic, and the design space was developed on the basis of suggested model for optimization of critical method variables for maximum desirable resolution and for the development of a control strategy of the HPTLC method for the stability study of thiocolchicoside. The developed method was validated for linearity, range, specificity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantification as per the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines (ICH) Q2 (R1). The developed method was applied for the estimation of thiocolchicoside in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The degradation products formed in acidic and alkaline media were isolated and characterized by their infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectral data.

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Ten different strains of Thermomyces lanuginosus , isolated from composting soils were found to produce phytase when grown on PSM medium. The wild type strain CM was found to produce maximum amount of phytase (4.33 units/g DW substrate). Culturing T. lanuginosus strain CM on medium containing wheat bran and optimizing other culture conditions (carbon source, media type, nitrogen source, level of nitrogen, temperature, pH, inoculum age, inoculum level and moisture), increased the phytase yield to 13.26 units/g substrate. This culture was further subjected to UV mutagenesis for developing phytase hyperproducing mutants. The mutant (TL-7) showed 2.29-fold increase in phytase activity as compared to the parental strain. Employing Box-Behnken factor factorial design of response surface methodology resulted in optimized phytase production (32.19 units/g of substrate) by mutant TL-7. A simple two-step purification (40.75-folds) of phytase from mutant TL-7 was achieved by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purified phytase (∼54 kDa) was characterized to be optimally active at pH 5.0 and temperature 70 °C, though the enzyme showed ∼70% activity over a wide pH and temperature range (2.0–10.0 and 30–90 °C, respectively). The phytase showed broad substrate specificity with activity against sodium phytate, ADP and riboflavin phosphate. The phytase from T. lanuginosus was thermoacidstable as it showed up to 70% residual activity after exposure to 70 °C at pH 3.0 for 120 min. The enzyme showed K m 4.55 μM and V max 0.833 μM/min/mg against sodium phytate as substrate.

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-Cook , Response Surface Methodology, 3rd edn. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2008. Anderson-Cook C.M. Response Surface Methodology 2008

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. Kiassos , E. , Mylonaki , S. , Makris , D.P. & Kefalas , P. 2009 : Implementation of response surface methodology to optimise extraction of onion (Allium cepa) solid waste phenolics . Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. , 10

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ultrasound-assisted extraction of extra virgin olive oil by response surface methodology (RSM) . Grasas Aceites , 68 ( 2 ), 189 – 199 . Bejaoui , M

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