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Phenoloid contents were detected, examined and compared with each other from seven composite species (Inula ensifolia L., I. salicina L., I. spiraeifolia L., I. britannica L., I. conyza DC., Centaurea scabiosa L., C. micranthos S. G. Gmel.). The six test solutions were the followings: apigenin, quercetin, hyperosid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin. There were significant differences between ray and disc florets from both quantitative and qualitative results, and the species with more significant insect visiting (Inula ensifolia, I. salicina, I. spiraeifolia) have got quantitative dominance.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Attila Nemes, Marcel L. Geleijnse, Osama I. I. Soliman, Wim B. Vletter, Jackie S. McGhie, Tamás Forster, and Folkert J. Ten Cate

Jelenleg az echokardiográfia a legszéleskörűbben alkalmazott rutin noninvazív diagnosztikus eljárás, amelynek segítségével a mitralis billentyű morfológiája és funkciója jellemezhető. Ennek az összefoglaló jellegű közleménynek a célja az egyik legújabb echokardiográfiás fejlesztés, a transthoracalis real-time háromdimenziós echokardiográfia szerepének bemutatása a mitralis billentyű vizsgálatában.

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A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the first time to simultaneously determine salicin and eight flavonoids in leaves of Salix matsudana, that is salicin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, myricetin, apigenin-3′-oxyethyl-7-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol and apigenin. The separation of these compounds was achieved on a reversed phase C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with linear gradient of methanol in 0.2% phosphoric acid solution with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 246 nm. The calibration curves for the determination of all analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (r > 0.999). The % relative standard deviation (% RSD) values were less than 0.34%, and the recoveries were between 95.79% and 99.94%. The values of luteolin-7-O-glucoside, salicin, myricetin, apigenin-3′-oxyethyl-7-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and apigenin were 1.0 μg g−1, 20.0 μg g−1, 32.9 μg g−1, 2.0 μg g−1, 29.5 μg g−1, 6.0 μg g−1, 1.0 μg g−1, 3.5 μg g−1, and apigenin was not found in the sample. This developed method can be used for evaluating the quality of different plant materials.

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Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), the ‘fig tree’, is reported to help in the prevention of vein blockage. Its rich fiber content has a laxative effect and fig latex inhibits the growth of carcinoma cells. Despite the wide use in the Indian traditional system of medicine of, especially, the fruit as an antidiabetic drug, and pharmacological investigation of the leaves, very little investigation has been conducted on phytochemical properties of the plant. An HPTLC method has therefore been established for simultaneous quantification of four biomarkers — bergapten, psoralen, rutin, and chlorogenic acid — in different tissues of the plant. Levels of bergapten and psoralen were highest in the leaves and bark whereas amounts in the fruit were negligible. Levels of chlorogenic acid were highest in the fruit and the maximum concentrations of rutin were found in the leaves. It is therefore apparent that the part of the plant to be used as a drug should be decided on the basis of the activity desired.This HPTLC method can also be used for quality control and standardization of different parts of F. carica .

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Red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) are pseudocereals with particularly highly regarded nutritional value. Because of the high biological significance of the flavonoids and phenolic acids in these plants, qualitative and quantitative analysis has been performed by HPLC. Extracts from the seeds of two amaranth varieties (A. cruentus v. Rawa and v. Aztek) and quinoa seeds, and their sprouts grown in natural conditions and in the dark were analyzed. The main phenolic acid found both in seeds and sprouts was gallic acid. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and cinnamic acid were also found in the seeds and p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid in the sprouts. The main flavonoid found in the sprouts was rutin. Vitexin, isovitexin, and morin were also detected in the sprouts, and orientin, vitexin, isovitexin, morin, and traces of hesperidin and neohesperidin in the seeds. Although sprouting conditions (daylight or darkness) had no effect on gallic acid content, light caused an increase in the amount of rutin and darkness resulted in increased amounts of isovitexin and vitexin.

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In the present paper, a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed both for quantitative determination and fingerprint analysis of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb for quality control. Under the optimized HPLC conditions, seven bioactive compounds including rutin, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, luteoloside, tiliroside, apigenin, kaempferol, and agrimonolide were determined simultaneously. For fingerprint analysis, 11 common peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of 16 different samples collected from different origins in China. Besides, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also performed to evaluate the variation of the raw materials. This is the first report of using a simple method for quality control of A. pilosa Ledeb through multi-component determination and chromatographic fingerprint analysis to the best of our knowledge.

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The rhizome of Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham has been used as a traditional Chinese folk medicine for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are the main bioactive ingredients of the plant. In order to determine the content of phenolic compounds from different major cultivations, a reliable method has been developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Seven compounds, including rutin, kaempferol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, formononetin, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were simultaneously measured in 10 min. The established approach was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability as well as recovery, and successfully applied to determine seven phenolic compounds of Rhizoma Sparganii. This study may be helpful in the quality control of Rhizoma Sparganii and can offer technical support for the pharmacological and clinical study of related drugs.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Oana Roşca-Casian, Cristina Mircea, Laurian Vlase, Ana-Maria Gheldiu, Delia Tania Teuca, and Marcel Pârvu

The 50% ethanol extract obtained from Hedera helix leaves was investigated regarding the presence and quantity of polyphenols, sterols and in vitro antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The chemical analysis revealed the presence of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in the non-hydrolysed sample and quercetin and kaempferol in the hydrolysed sample and stigmasterol in the ivy leaf extract (nonhydrolysed sample). The antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, B. tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae, Penicillium gladioli, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) was assessed using an agar dilution assay. The results are expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 10–14%) and were compared to a synthetic antifungal drug – fluconazole (MIC = 8–30%). This report presents the first screening of the antifungal activity of the ivy leaf extract on these plant pathogenic fungi species, aiming to use the ivy leaf extract for controlling different diseases of vegetables and ornamental plants, in addition to human disorders.

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Elderberry pomace, by-product of juice pressing procedure, is still rich in biologically active compounds, especially antioxidants and phenolic compounds. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether elderberry pomace could be utilized as a source of natural colourings and preservatives. By a simple solvent extraction a proper food colouring could be produced from elderberry pomace characterized by similar colour values as pressed elderberry juice. A solvent ratio of 1:20 with 50% ethanol proved to be the optimal solvent extraction method to produce an extract rich in antioxidants showing inhibitory effect against Lysteria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. In elderberry pomace extract three main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, rutin and coumaric acid have been identifed by HPLC analysis. Based on our results, elderberry pomace, a by-product of fruit processing technologies, seems to be suitable for developing natural food additives after appropriate clarifcation processes.

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Phenolic extract from banana peel was extracted with 95% ethanol and characterized by LC-TOF-MS/MS. Epicatechin, rutin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, myricetin, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were detected in the extract. Cholate test was performed for the initial examination of the hypolipidemic effect of the dietary fibres. The dietary fibres prepared by sequential treatment with sulphuric acid then sodium hydroxide (SST) and sodium hydroxide treatment (SHT) had high water-holding capacities (7.48 and 6.91 g g−1) and swelling capacities (4.8 and 4.3 ml g−1). The dietary fibres prepared by sequential treatment with trypsin then sulphuric acid (TST) and sulphuric acid treatment (SAT) had high oil-holding capacities (5.52 and 5.10 g g−1) and enhanced capacities for sodium cholate adsorption. Results indicated the potentials of banana peel as functional ingredient in food applications.

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