This paper illustrates the problems that arose after the approval of a law in Italy (Act no. 482/1999) on the safeguarding and enhancement of traditional linguistic minorities by examining a number of specific examples. The law proved to be not only seriously insufficient, but even had negative repercussions, both with regard to the overall judgement expressed on Italy’s linguistic heritage seen as a cultural heritage, and with regard to the fact that in many situations the very principal of protection was distorted: from the refusal to finance a number of groups rightfully and meritoriously entitled to such funds to the financing of local realities which have very little if nothing to do with linguistic varieties. In general, “language policy” in Italy is negatively influenced by the confusion between “national minority” and “linguistic minority”, one of the major factors in accounting for the failure of initiatives attempting to help the linguistic minorities.
It is argued that increased freedom to run economic activities combined with the growing impotence of national governments (i.e., globalization) have contributed to the secular growth slowdown at the global level. Fast globalisation-driven growth of international trade has unleashed the global race for economic surpluses. The process involves the suppression of wages and widening income inequalities – restricting aggregate demand globally. A “beggar-thy-neighbor” tactics of keeping large trade surpluses by countries successfully suppressing wages and domestic demand is likely to be unproductive. Overcoming the secular stagnation may not be possible without safeguarding equilibrium (or balance) in international transactions between major industrial countries – even if this may necessitate that in most (or all) of them the public sectors run large fiscal deficits permanently.
Authors:Abraham P. Buunk and Odette van Brummen-Girigori
Most studies on changes in female behavior and preferences across the menstrual cycle have been conducted in samples comprised of largely white undergraduate students from Western populations. The present study examined cyclical shifts in reactive, preventive and anxious jealousy in a sample of 71 Afro-Caribbean women from Curaçao, a country in the Caribbean. We expected that, because of the risk of conceiving, especially preventive jealousy would be relatively high when fertile to safeguard the male’s protection, provisioning and investment. The results showed that, when fertile, women experienced indeed particularly more preventive jealousy, and also somewhat more anxious jealousy, but not more reactive jealousy, than when non-fertile. In addition, preventive jealousy was higher the later the age of the first menarche. We discuss possible explanations for the functionality of preventive jealousy during the fertile phase of the cycle, and for the functionality of such jealousy among women with a slow life history strategy.
Isotopic correlation analysis is believed to make possible quick and accurate determinations of nuclear fuel parameters for
reactor operation, reprocessing, fuel management and nuclear safeguards. Correlation dependencies have been found between
ratios of fission products on the one hand and isotope ratios of the heavy elements on the other hand. The use of the154Eu/155Eu ratio in correlation analysis was proposed by SMULEK. The scope of useful applications of this isotopic ratio has been
further investigated. A quick and time-saving method to measure the154Eu/155Eu ratio has been elaborated. The atomic ratios have been found by internal calibration using the computer programme ABSINT.
Beside this the atomic ratios of154Eu/155Eu as a function of nuclear fuel burn-up have been calculated using the computer programme ISOTOP.
The correlation between the154Eu/155Eu ratio and nuclear fuel burn-up is best approximated by a quadratic function. Up to a burn-up of 1% fima a linear function
can be used.
High precision gamma spectrometry measurements have been made on five sets of uranium isotope abundance reference materials for nondestructive assay (NDA). These sets are intended for international safeguards use as primary reference materials for the determination of the235U abundance in homogeneous uranium bulk material by gamma spectrometry. The measurements were made to determine the count rate uniformity of the235U 185.7 keV gamma-ray as well as the235U isotope abundance for each sample. Since the samples were packaged such that the U3O8 is infinitely thick for the 185.7 keV gamma-ray, the measured count rate was not dependent on the material density. In addition, the activity observed by the detector was collimated to simulate calibration conditions used to measure bulk material in the field. The sample-to-sample variations observed within the 5 sets of samples ranged between 0.005–0.11% (1s) with standard deviations of the mean ranging from 0.01–0.02%. This observed variation appears to be due predominantly to counting statistics and not to material inhomogeneity and/or packaging. The results of this study indicate that accuracy of235U determinations via gamma spectrometry, in the range of few hundredths of a percent (2), is achievable. The main requirement for achieving this level of accuracy is a set of standards whose235U isotope abundances are known to within 0.01% (2).
A direct simple and fast method was established, to overcome the influence of low and high level impurities on the measurement
of 235U/238U isotopic ratio in nuclear spent fuel safeguard by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), by using refractory metal
oxide. The addition of refractory metal oxides forming solution (RMOFS), in certain proportions alongside with the spent fuel
solution on the sample filaments were found to be useful during the analysis of uranium isotopic ratio by TIMS. RMOFS (with
oxide melting point exceeding 2,000 °C), and particularly that of magnesium, were found to be very effective in improving
the quality of the ion signal of 235U and 238U, when added without the need for prior purification. Solutions of chromium, cerium, thorium, and magnesium were investigated,
to select the more convenient one, and it was found that magnesium was very useful to start with. The method was very simple,
improve both the accuracy and precision of the collected data, reduce the time required to achieve steady uranium pilot signal,
and hence the over all time of the analysis, regardless of the level of impurities present.
Neutron multiplicity analysis has been a valuable technique for safeguards measurements of plutonium oxide and mixed oxides.
Historically, most of these measurements have been performed using shift register based electronics. The shift register data
acquisition lacks certain flexibility because the basic coincidence parameters (e.g., pre-delay, gate width, and long delay)
must be fixed prior to the start of the measurement and the values may potentially, therefore, be sub optimal. List mode or
time stamped data acquisition records the arrival time of each pulse thereby preserving the history of the pulse stream and
allowing analysis and reanalysis using software analogs to the shift register circuit with adjustable parameters. Until recently,
the data rates encountered in the assay of modest amounts of plutonium using efficient multiplicity counters were beyond the
capacity of readily available personal computers. The calibration of the large epithermal neutron multiplicity counter (LEMC)
for assay of plutonium scrap materials is used as a vehicle to compare the performance of the multiplicity shift register
and a commercially available list mode acquisition module.