Authors:František Hnilička, Helena Hniličková, Jaroslava Martinková, and Ladislav Bláha
Winter wheat varieties: Ebi, Estica, Samanta were grown in three experimental variants (control, drought stress and high temperature, stress and the application of 24-epibrassinolide). The plants were monitored for the weight of the dry matter and the straw and grain yields. The stressors were found to have a negative effect on the amount of dry matter in the above-ground wheat biomass and the yield of grain and straw. Drought and high temperature lowered the amount of dry matter in the grain and straw in all varieties. For all monitored varieties the application of 24-epibrassinolide reduced the negative effect of the monitored stressors. The best reaction to the application of 24-epibrassinolide was seen in the variety Estica, the worst in the variety Samanta. Of the varieties monitored the variety Samanta exhibited the tolerance to drought and high temperatures. On the contrary Ebi is a sensitive variety.
Authors:S. M. Imathiu, R. V. Ray, M. Back, M. C. Hare, and S. G. Edwards
Fusarium langsethiae, a toxigenic fungus known to contaminate small-grain cereals with type A trichothecene mycotoxins, HT-2 and T-2 was described as a new species in 2004. HT-2 and T-2 are some of the most potent Fusarium toxins in eukaryotes, capable of inhibiting protein synthesis. The epidemiology of F. langsethiae is not well understood and with the intent of the European Commission to set maximum levels of contamination of cereals with these toxins, importance is currently placed in trying to understand the fungal infection process and its favorable growth conditions. A field study was carried out to investigate the effect of artificially inoculated oats straw, ploughing and minimum tillage with and without incorporated crop debris (straw) on infection and mycotoxin production by F. langsethiae on oats cultivar Gerald. The results indicated that cultural field practices had effects on the infection of oats by F. langsethiae. Fusarium langsethiae DNA was quantified in significantly larger amounts (p<0.05) in minimum tilled with incorporated straw plot samples than in other plot samples. It was also shown that inoculated straw had no significant effect (p>0.05) on oat infection by F. langsethiae as quantified by DNA concentration. HT-2+T-2 quantification and analysis, gave no good evidence that either inoculation or cultural practice had any significant influence on the concentration of mycotoxins in the samples (p>0.05), but samples from minimum tillage with incorporated straw plots resulted in 2.5 times more HT-2+T-2 toxins than samples from ploughed with removed straw. These findings indicate the importance of tillage and crop debris management in the mitigation in an effort to prevent F. langsethiae infection, colonization and possible contamination of oats with HT-2 and T-2 toxins.
Field experiments were carried out for 3 years to assess the efficacy of organic manures (Sesbania, Leucaena, cowpea, mungbean, wheat straw and FYM) in enhancing the productivity of rice and in supplying Fe. Green manuring with Sesbania gave the highest rice yield, whereas the lowest yield was recorded with wheat straw incorporation. The concentration and uptake of Fe by rice was significantly higher with organic manures. The Fe status of the soil after 3 crops of rice declined from the initial value, but the decline was least with FYM, followed by green manures. The application of organic manures is a good source for a sustained supply of Fe in soil.
Authors:B. Baranyai, Sz. Bodó, A. Dinnyés, and Elen Gócza
Solid surface vitrification (SSV) was compared with in-straw vitrification for cryopreservation of biopsied mouse embryos. Eight-cell stage embryos were zona drilled and one blastomere was removed. Developed morulae or blastocysts were vitrified in microdrop (35% EG + 5% PVP + 0.4 M trehalose) or in straw (7.0 M EG + 0.5 M sucrose). Following recovery, embryos were cultivated in vi tro or transferred into recipients. Cryopreservation had an effect not only on the survival of biopsied embryos but also on their subsequent development in vitro. Cryosurvival of biopsied morulae vitrified in straw was significantly inferior to SSV. The post-warm development of biopsied and non-biopsied morulae was delayed on Day 3.5 and 4.5 in both vitrification groups. A delay in development was observed on Day 5.5 among vitrified non-biopsied blastocysts. The percentage of pups born from biopsied morulae or blastocysts following cryopreservation did not differ from that of the control. No significant differences could be detected between methods within and between embryonic stages in terms of birth rate. The birth rate of biopsied embryos vitrified in straw was significantly lower compared to the non-biopsied embryos. The novel cryopreservation protocol of SSV proved to be effective for cryopreservation of morula- and blastocyst-stage biopsied embryos.
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the impact of premethanation (PREME) and postmethanation (POME) distillery effluent applied as pre-sowing irrigation (PSI) along with graded levels of inorganic fertilizers on the grain and straw yield and nutrient content of a rice crop (var. PR 116). Maximum grain yield (29.4 g pot
) was recorded with the application of 100% recommended NPK along with one pre-sowing irrigation (PSI) through POME and the lowest yield (7.4 g pot
) was obtained with 2 PSI applied through PREME without any inorganic fertilizers. The application of POME equivalent to 1 PSI was more effective in increasing the grain and straw yield of rice than no POME application or POME application equivalent to 2 PSI. A significant decrease in yield occurred with the application of 2 PSI of either effluent, and beyond 2 PSI the rice seedlings did not grow.In comparison to POME, the application of PREME increased the content of K (5%), Cu (10%), Fe (17%) and Mo (21%), but decreased that of P (12%), S (5%) and Mg (11%) in rice grain. In rice straw an increase was only observed in K (9%) and Mo (14%), while the contents of other nutrients (P, S, Zn, Cu, Mn) decreased by 8 to 21%. An increase in the level of effluent from 0 to 2 PSI significantly increased the content of N (by 21%), K (11%), S (10%), Zn (9%), Cu (21%) and Mo (8%), but decreased that of P (16%) and Mg (19%) in rice grain. In the case of rice straw, an increase in K (28%), S (32%), Cu (65%) and Mo (45%) content was recorded. Effluent application, inorganic fertilizers and their interactions had a significant effect on both the grain and straw yields and on the nutrient concentration in the plants.
Authors:J. Kutasi, Á. Bata, E. Brydl, P. Rafai, and V. Jurkovich
This paper describes the production of an enzyme preparation from the fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus. Thermal resistance, pH stability and lignocellulolytic activity of the enzyme preparation high in xylanase were studied on a variety of grains and forages. The enzyme preparation preserved more than 70% of its original xylanase activity for 4 and 1 h at 60 and 70 °C, respectively. The xylanase activity remained over 80% when the preparation was incubated for 30 min at pH 4.5. In vitro digestibility studies indicated that the enzyme digested 7.5, 8.5 and 8.0% of the dry matter (DM) of barley meal, wheat bran and oat meal samples, respectively. When applying 60-min incubation, 7.5, 7.3 and 8.4% of DM of the oat straw, alfalfa hay and triticale straw was digested, respectively. When the time of digestion was increased to 360 min, the sunflower hull showed 15.8% DM digestibility.
Authors:L. Hanifi-Mekliche, A. Mekliche, and P. Monneveux
The objectives of this research were to assess the genotype × environment interaction and to identify barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes with high stability for grain yield, yield components, straw height, ear length, heading time, straw yield and harvest index. Eighteen barley breeding lines and one commercial cultivar were evaluated under field conditions during five growing seasons. The trials were carried out under both rainfed and irrigated conditions during the first four years and under rainfed conditions only during the last growing season. Stability studies showed significant differences between the environments for all the traits and between the genotypes for thousand-grain weight, heading time and ear length. The genotype × environment interaction was, however, not significant according to the Finlay-Wilkinson analysis. The analysis of correlations between the various traits showed the importance of selecting for earliness, high number of grains/ear, stem height and ear length in order to obtain acceptable grain yields under drought-stressed conditions.
Authors:H. Z. Ghosheh, H. Z. Ghosheh, M. K. El-Shatnawi, and M. K. El-Shatnawi
Greenhouse experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons to investigate the influence of volunteer durum wheat cultivars and density on lentil growth and yield. It is speculated that interference may be severe whenever wheat and lentils are rotated in semi-arid regions. Lentil:durum wheat ratios of 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6 were evaluated utilizing two durum wheat cultivars, Hourani and ACSAD 65. The results indicated that wheat interference did not influence lentil growth for the first 80 days after crop emergence, but afterwards, the lentil height, straw and seed yield were affected by the presence of wheat. A 50% reduction in either lentil straw or seed yield was estimated from the interference of a single plant per pot. The semi-tall cultivar Hourani had more adverse effects on lentil growth and yield than the semi-dwarf cultivar ACSAD 65.
Authors:K. V. B. R. Tilak, A. K. Saxena, and A. K. Dwivedi
A pot experiment was conducted to study the response of barley (Hordeum vulgare) to inoculation with Glomus fasciculatum in unsterilised organic matter amended soils on the colonization of barley roots by (V)-Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other rhizosphere microflora. The populations of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were higher in amended than in control soils. Paddy straw compost (PSC) stimulated all three groups of organisms (bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes) more than city compost (CC). The fungal and actinomycetes populations decreased with increasing plant age. The effect was more pronounced in the rhizosphere of paddy straw-amended soils. The mycorrhizal spore count and the colonization of barley roots by (V)-AM were more pronounced in soils amended with PSC than in those amended with CC.
Authors:H. Morais, C. Ramos, E. Forgács, T. Cserháti, and J. Oliviera
The activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase produced by Pleurotus ostreatus in culture media composed of agro-residues was measured by spectrophotometry. The overall enzyme activity and its dependence on the composition of culture media were determined by using spectral mapping technique followed by non-linear mapping. The relationships between the parameters of enzyme production and the composition of culture media and fermentation time were assessed by stepwise regression analysis. It was established that P. ostreatus did not produce LiP. The lowest enzyme production was observed in culture media containing extract of wheat straw. This finding indicates that the use of other agro-residues as substitutes for wheat straw is justified. It was further established that the enzyme production was also influenced by the pH of the culture media. It was found that enzyme activity quadratically depended on the fermentation time.