Economics is not only a means of interpreting the past, but it must become an instrument for shaping the future, too. It should show inevitable future economic processes, with their links to culture, technology, and environment. With theoretical knowledge of this area, strategies of economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable development can be put in place. In the future, heterodoxy is bound to dominate, and economics will become increasingly interdisciplinary. Future generations need economics of moderation and a theory describing it, as opposed to the thus far prevailing economics of either deficiency or excess. We need the New Pragmatism.
Authors:Anna Vári, Zoltán Ferencz, Mária Csikai, and Brigitta Bozsó
Az MTA Szociológiai Kutatóintézet (MTA SZKI) és az Energia Klub Környezetvédelmi Egyesület (EK) 2009. januártól részt vesz az EU 7 Keretprogramja által finanszírozott Civil Társadalom a Fenntarthatóságért (Civil Society for Sustainability, CSS) című kutatási projektjében. A nemzetközi akciókutatási1 projekt érdekessége, hogy kutatócsoportok és civilszervezetek intenzív együttműködésén alapul. Cikkünkben röviden bemutatjuk a projektet, és beszámolunk az első fázis eredményeiről (EU-FP7 Project CSS, 2009).
agricultural production is a basic, traditional constituent of the Hungarian economy. An importance question nowadays is how the land can be cultivated and agricultural goods produced under the conditions of sustainable development. From the plant nutrition point of view the establishment of an environment-friendly fertilizer recommendation system is essential if sustainable development is to be achieved. Most experts agree that this type of fertilizer recommendation system is able to fulfil the growing demands of a growing population, while keeping the environment in good condition for the next generations. The experts also agree that fertilizer application could not be replaced widely with organic farming alone. An environmentally friendly fertilizer recommendation system has to be sensitive enough to respond to the effects of different conditions, e.g. great spatial variability of soil characteristics, mosaic-like soil cover, climate, crop rotation practices, soil nutrient supply, etc. There was a dramatic change in Hungarian agriculture at the beginning of the 90s, as the result of which the use of fertilizers decreased sharply for several reasons, e.g. privatization, changes in ownership, withdrawal of state subsidies for mineral fertilizers, drought, etc. Both Hungarian agriculture and the country as a whole is now facing two challenges, i.e. to overcome the economic difficulties and to complete the final phase of preparations to join the EU. Land use change scenarios have proved that the natural endowments of Hungary are suitable for integrating agricultural production with environmental and landscape protection and nature conservation.
While the mainstream economics — also known as — capitalism considers capital as the mode of production, Buddhist economics suggests that
, or the ability to understand everything in its own nature be the mode of production. The economy under this mode of production is known as
-ism. Buddhist economics, argues that
— happiness, defined here as the opposite state to pain, which implies peace and tranquility, rather than the usual meaning of prosperity, pleasure and gratification — is the result of the emergence of
. Therefore, Buddhist economics is the most efficient economics in term of resources used. It is the kind of economics that advocates sustainable development, especially in the world, which is now close to the blink of catastrophe from global warming due to inefficiency in consumption, the concept that cannot be clearly understood in the mainstream economics. The most difficult part in Buddhist economics is how to cultivate
for as many people as possible.
There are many uncertainties in “global” climate changes (direction, rate, seasonal and geographical distribution) and in the prediction of their environmental, ecological, economical and even social consequences. All prognoses, however, forecast the increasing risk, frequency, duration and intensity (seriousness) of irregular, extreme climatic and hydrological events and moisture situations. In their prevention or reduction the
water storage function of soil
has special significance. Consequently, all efforts have to be taken for its more efficient use: helping the infiltration and storage of water in soils. Permanent
soil moisture control
may help to
or at least reduce undesirable soil processes and their harmful economical/ecological/environmental/social consequences; and may fulfil the conditions of the “quality maintenance” of soil, this “conditionally renewable” natural resource, which is an important element of sustainable development, including the adaption to and mitigation of climate changes.
The integration of conventional plant breeding and plant transformation is necessitated by the fact that, prior to the gene technological phase, traditional breeding methods have to be used to develop agronomically valuable homozygous genotypes which can then be modified for a gene or genome segment by means of gene manipulation techniques. Once the genotype selected by means of conventional breeding has been transformed, traditional methods are again used to examine the agronomic properties of the lines developed from the transgenic plant and the stability of the transgenic variety, following the DUS criteria elaborated by UPOV. The seed production of genetically modified plant varieties must be safe and economical and the cultivation of the variety should contribute to the sustainable development of up-to-date crop production.
A tanulmány Kulcsár Kálmán akadémikus, volt igazságügyi miniszter és kanadai nagykövet tudományfejlesztő és államszervező munkásságának méltatása után annak a szerepnek kereteit, tartalmi összetevőit és eszközrendszerét vázolja, amelyek révén a magyar alkotmányos jogállam korszakunk folyamatai közepette a fenntartható fejlődést szolgálhatja. Az alkotmányos keretek továbbfejlesztése érdekében a szerző számos javaslatot fogalmaz meg újabb alapelvek, emberi és polgári alapjogok, tilalmak és kötelességek alkotmányi értékké nyilvánítására, valamint a magyar állam szervezetének és működési rendjének fejlesztésére.
Authors:L. Núñez-Regueira, J. A. Rodríguez-Añón, J. Proupín-Castiñeiras, and O. Núñez-Fernández
Summary Soil productivity and health were analyzed using an experimental procedure designed for this kind of studies. The continuous loss of fertile soil obliged the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to declare soil as an item to be protected as a support of the world society welfare. The procedure here described is in accordance with the premises necessary for a rational and sustainable development of soil and the resources it contains and can be used to study any soil all over the world. The study was carried out using soil microbial population as a bioindicator of soil health. Microbial activity was followed using the microcalorimetric technique. The microcalorimetric study can be complemented through a deep analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties together with a study of the environmental properties that have a strong influence on the afore mentioned properties and, thus on the microbial activity in soil. The different properties follow different ASTM, ISS/FAO, USDA, etc. well defined standards. The experimental procedure reported in this work could be very helpful to create a data basis that could be useful to quantify and control soil potentiality or design soil decontamination and recovery systems.