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Abstract  

Sand granule are used as a filter bed in many ground water treatment stations to remove particulate matter from untreated water. A build up of radioactivity may take place on the granules. The disposal of those granules poses a significant problem. A batch technique was used to test the possibility of removing radioactivity from actual samples of the loaded sands. The study was limited to combined radium (226Ra and228Ra). Acidity, temperature, contact time and liquid-to-solid ratio were thoroughly investigated as factors affecting the treatment process. The data obtained are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

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Abstract  

A direct curve simulation treatment has been worked out for the evaluation of the kinetic curves of heterogeneous isotope exchange. Based on the data obtained by a personal computer some considerations have been made on the transport processes in the fully and half exchanged sodium forms of crystalline zirconium phosphate.

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Abstract  

Attempt was made to evaluate the usefulness of thermoanalytical methods, combined with X-ray phase analysis and chemical analyses, for the study of thermal decomposition of waste materials to be subjected to thermal treatment. The object of the studies were petrochemical waste materials intended to be decomposed in a rotary furnace. Results are given of the studies of five selected waste materials.

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Abstract  

In order to reduce the toxicity of both raw wastewater and effluent from a rubber products factory, γ-ray treatment was applied at different dose levels. The γ-ray treatment did not completely removed the toxicity, suggesting that there were major toxicants other than destroyable organic compounds. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE phase 1) was conducted to characterize major toxicants using Daphnia magna. The suspected toxicants in both raw wastewater and effluent were mostly filterable materials and EDTA chelatable metals and, to some degree, non-polar organic compounds. Anion-exchange removable compounds, most likely organics, were found only in raw wastewater. Metal analyses showed that zinc and copper concentrations were above levels causing toxicity to D. magna. After 20 kGy γ-ray treatment of raw wastewater, filtrations both at pH 3 and at the initial pH (pH 3.6) showed dramatic change (9 to 77% and 29 to 85%, respectively) in toxicity reduction, suggesting the formation of toxic filterable materials which are stable even at acidic conditions. Unlike raw wastewater, there was no significant change in TIE results after γ-ray treatment at 20 kGy for rubber effluent.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: N. Lahav, D. Ovadyahu, A. Gutkin, E. Mastov, T. Menjeritzki, A. Adin, L. Rubinstein, D. Tropp, and S. Yariv

Abstract  

A device was constructed in which a clay suspension is hermetically heated at 220°C for a few minutes. This thermal treatment is accompanied by a pressure increase in the cell. Once the valve is opened, there is a fast release of the pressure inside the cell and a sudden evolution of the interparticle water. This shock leads to a quasi explosion of the clay particle. This technique was named thermal vapour pressure shock explosion (TSE). The effect of TSE treatment on the properties of palygorskite suspensions was investigated. Palygorskite suspensions in water are rather unstable and particles smaller than 3 μm in size are not found before a TSE treatment. Stabilization of the suspension can be obtained by TSE treatments and/or by using a dispersing agent such as pyrophosphate, or both. As a result of TSE treatments smaller particles are obtained, the dispersiveness of the particles is improved and electrophoretic mobility is increased. Electron microscopy scans showed that the aggregates of needles which form the palygorskite fibres, disintegrate to separated thin needles as a result of the TSE treatment.

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Abstract  

Transition metal montmorillonites were saturated with benzidine (BEN) and heated gradually to 200°C, in a vacuum cell supported by KBr windows. IR spectra were recorded before and after the thermal treatment and at various temperatures during this treatment. X-ray diffractions were recorded before and after the thermal treatment. Hg clay shows properties similar to those of Mg and Ca clays. In the interlayer BEN is bound to Hg through a water molecule bridge, either by proton accepting (typeA) or by proton donation (typeB). Some BEN is also protonated (typeD). Initially typeA predominates, but after the thermal treatment, when the film is rehydrated, the amounts of typesB andD increase. With Mn-, Co-, Ni-, Zn- and Cd-montmorillonite a direct coordination of the benzidine by the dehydrated metallic cation is obtained (typeC), in addition to small amounts of typesA,B andD. During the thermal treatment water is evolved and associationsA andB are completely transformed toC. At elevated temperatures the following associations were identified in trace amounts, ammonium-amine, BEN bound to non-structured water, hydrophobic adsorbed BEN and BEN bound to the oxygen plane (typesE, F, H andJ, respectively). During the thermal treatment of Co and Cd clays some of the benzidine was oxidized, probably to semiquinone and quinoidal cation.

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Abstract  

The use of non-aqueous deacidification procedures as a preventive conservation measure to assist in retarding the deterioration of painting canvases has been suggested by the Conservation Department of the Tate Gallery [1]. The reverse sides of paintings are treated with commercially available MMC solution (methoxy magnesium methyl carbonate). The aim of this paper is to describe how dynamic mechanical thermal analysis can be used to evaluate the effects of this treatment. Measurements are described on modern commercially primed canvas samples [2] which show that the MMC treatment does cause an increase in the modulus or stiffness of the primed canvas materials but that the effect on theT g is minimal. The response of the treated materials to variations in relative humidity has also been studied and indications are that the response of treated canvases to variations in relative humidity differs from those of the untreated canvases.

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Products of hydrothermal treatment of the initial amorphous system MnxFe2−2x(OH)6−4x for 0≤x1 in 0.1x intervals, and products of their further thermal treatment, were examined by chemical analysis, X-ray, IR, and DTA techniques supported by magnetic measurements. After hydrothermal growth for lowx, hematite and goethite phases occurred. Although the goethite phase was still identifiable atx=0.6, formation of a solid solution with the isostructural groutite was not found. The ferrimagnetic spinel phase, which resists heating up to 400‡C, was present at 0.5≤x≤0.9. At higher temperatures, it transformed into the rhombohedral hematite type phase or into the cubic bixbyite phase. AtT≥900‡C, a ferrimagnetic spinel structure reappeared up tox=0.8. For x=0.9, the low- and high-temperature forms of the hausmannite phase occurred, forx= 1 passing from one form into another through Mn5O8 and partritgeite.

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Abstract  

Via the thermal treatment of natural phosphates and their analysis, it was proved that the decrease in their solubility in the interval 400–550C is an indication of the degree of incorporation of OH groups into the apatite structure of phosphates, whereas the solubility at 950C is an indication of the degree of incorporation of the non-volatile components. The higherR 950, the more extensive this substitution, and the more reactive the natural phosphate.

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Summary Mechanical mixtures containing zirconia xerogel and increasing amount of crystalline yttria up to 40 mol%, were hydrothermally treated by microwave route at 110°C for 2h. All the treatments were performed in the presence of (KOH+K2CO3) mineralizer solution at concentration 0.2 M. Amorphous and hydrated ZrO2-Y2O3 solid solutions with yttria content up to 33.3 mol% (corresponding to Zr/Y molar ratio equal to 1), resulted after the hydrothermal treatments. A remarkable reduction of the surface area has been detected at increasing yttria content of the amorphous phases with a corresponding increase of the exothermic peak of crystallization. A mechanism of reaction for the formation of the amorphous solid solutions has been proposed.

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