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triticale. Plant Breeding 116 :302–304. Jouve N. Analysis of anther culture response in hexaploid triticale Plant Breeding

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Apolinarska, B. 1996a. Different chromosome combinations on tetra- and hexaploid level from hybrids of tetraploid rye × tetraploid triticale. In: Guedes-Pinto, H., Darvey, N., Carnide, P.V. (eds), Triticale

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Triticale is derived from a cross between wheat and rye and the leaf rust pathogen of wheat, Puccinia triticina (Pt), and that of rye, P. recondita sensu stricto (Pr), can potentially cause disease in this crop. Recent studies showed that wheat rust fungi could adapt to warmer temperatures. In this paper, we report on the comparative virulence of three Pt races and one Pr isolate (all were collected in South Africa) on triticale as well as their in vitro response to temperature. Seedling infection types (SITs) of 169 triticale entries to Pt races 3SA144 (North American code SDDN), 3SA145 (CCPS) and 3SA248 (CFPS) and Pr isolate UVPr2 revealed that 3SA144 is the most virulent with 106 triticale entries found susceptible to this race. The three Pt races were avirulent to the four rye cultivars included as controls. UVPr2 was avirulent on all the triticale entries and 49 entries were considered resistant to the Pt races tested. Freshly harvested urediniospores of the above isolates were tested at constant temperature regimes of 10 °C, 22.5 °C and 35 °C to study germination characteristics. Mean urediniospore germination percentages as determined for 3SA144 (61.3%) and UVPr2 (62.6%) were significantly lower when compared to 3SA145 (83.7%) and 3SA248 (84.9%). Race 3SA144 was most sensitive to the higher temperature regime of 35 °C (5.2% germination). Among the investigated races, 3SA144 showed significantly lower mean germ tube elongation rates at all three incubation temperatures. This is the first report of differences in temperature adaptation between Pt races from SA.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: A. Comeau, L. Nodichao, J. Collin, M. Baum, J. Samsatly, D. Hamidou, F. Langevin, A. Laroche, and E. Picard

Literature confirms that using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an osmotic agent to imitate water shortage was not so easy in practice, due to PEG toxicity effects and frequent contaminations. Two new approaches were developed to alleviate those problems, one using a raft covered with a membrane to prevent PEG entry in roots, and one using solidified PEG media. The raft trials were done on corn, hexaploid and tetraploid wheat, rye, triticale, oats, barley, Agrotricum; those in solid media, with corn, hexaploid and tetraploid wheat, barley, sorghum and pearl millet. Different species respond differently to PEG-induced osmotic stress. In our trials, the most sensitive cereal was corn, and this finding correlates with the lower osmotic pressure of the sap (a constitutive trait in corn seedlings). Corn responded to osmotic stress by a very poor rate of elongation of the coleoptile, especially when the highest stress (32% PEG) was used. This behavior was also observed in the field in dry years, for example in the Sahel area. Compared to this sensitive cereal species, all other cereals tested were more resistant. Hexaploid and tetraploid wheat, triticale, and Agrotricum kept capacity to elongate roots when submitted to a high osmotic stress, but the higher stress reduced root length considerably. Barley kept rooting ability like other cereals, but was able to develop more aerial biomass, seminal roots, and ramifications. Barley root hair was also longer and covered a higher proportion of the root. Those adaptive features likely explain part of the good adaptation of barley to dry Mediterranean areas. Preliminary results on solid media also showed relationships between drought resistance and the osmoresistance response, at least when comparing species. Roots of species adapted to hot climate, like pearl millet and sorghum, had few seminal roots but displayed a strong gravitropism under osmotic stress. The ease of use of solidified PEG media shows promise for future larger scale trials. Applications of solidified PEG media for research beyond cereal crops is envisioned.

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Irodalom 1. Doxastakis , G. – Zafiriadis , I. – Irakli , M. – Marlani , H. – Tananaki , C. : 2002 . Lupin, soya and triticale addition to wheat flour doughs and

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Biofuels

Part II. Thermogravimetric research of dry decomposition

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Sławomir Poskrobko and Danuta Król

. Experimental Materials We examined agro biomass waste, that is oats and triticale straw, grain oats and triticale grain and cukrosorgo stalks. Research materials come from Polish territory (Podlasie province). Samples of tested

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nutrient supplies on the yield of triticale in long-term experiments. Növénytermelés , 51 , 687-701. Effect of rainfall and nutrient supplies on the yield of triticale in long-term experiments

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Doxastakis, G., Zafiriadis, I., Irakli, M., Marlani, H., Tananaki, C. 2002. Lupin, soya and triticale addition to wheat flour doughs and their effect on rheological properties. Food Chemistry 77 :219

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sárga törpeség vírus hazánkban előforduló törzseinek megállapítása árpa-, búza-, triticale- és kukoricakultúrákban. (Determination of strains of barley yellow dwarf virus occurring on barley, wheat, triticale and maize crops in Hungary). Növényvédelem

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. Rabenstein , F. , Sukhacheva , E. , Habekuß , A. , Schubert , J. 2005 . Differentiation of Wheat dwarf virus isolates from wheat, triticale and barley by means of a monoclonal antibody . In: Proc. Xth Conf. on Viral Diseases of

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