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worth noting that this increasing preference for the vernacular in Welsh charms, especially those that feature religious narrative or references, coincides with the earliest translations of the Bible into Welsh and a generally increasing interest in the

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, which suggests the superiority of Polish soldiers over others. Besides, Dembołęcki attempts to convince his readers that the Lisovchiks changed after they gained another name: ‘elears’. Dembołęcki believed that the new name might have come from the Bible

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‒ red as the rose piros mint a karmazsin ‒ red as the crimson/kermes bíborpiros ‒ magenta (literally: purple red) (in the earliest complete Hungarian translation of the Bible ‒ dating from 1590 ‒ this color term appears 27 times), etc. Furthermore

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establishes a fruitful connection with a diverse range of textual traditions, from the Bible through mystery plays, fables and herbaria to contemporary works ( Mellár, 2018 ). The loose string of phytoaphorisms, phytoicons, phytoenigma, phytolegends, and

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establishes a fruitful connection with a diverse range of textual traditions, from the Bible through mystery plays, fables and herbaria to contemporary works ( Mellár, 2018 ). The loose string of phytoaphorisms, phytoicons, phytoenigma, phytolegends, and

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argumentation on what is prohibited and what is allowed in magical and superstitious activities. Their sources were also similar: they used the Bible, as well as the writings of Saint Augustine, Saint Isidor of Seville, Saint Thomas Aquinas, and Jean Gerson, the

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In every European language we find a great number of phraseological units of biblical origin, but each language has its own peculiarities in adopting these units. At the same time the text of the Bible has its own phraseological system too, which is obviously different from the systems inherited by the European languages. This approach gives us the way to obtain relevant results in diachronic research. The practical application of this method is presented in the analysis of the origin of the idiom under the open sky .

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I collected stories of conversion from university students in Kolozsvár/Cluj. They had come into contact with representatives of the revival movement and constructed their own identities under the influence of the identity patterns conveyed by these people. The conversion means that their relationship with God becomes personal in that they accept salvation from sin for themselves, declare themselves to be the children of God and place their lives under His guidance. This goes together with a new way of life involving daily reading and interpretation of the Bible, impromptu personal prayers and participation in charity work. In the stories of conversion they speak about this new identity and the process through which they changed their identities. Parallel with the restructuring of the individual identity the collective identity also changes since, from the time of their conversion, they regard themselves as members of the community and the activity of the community extends to all fields of life: Bible hours, religious services, sports, summer camps, film club, etc.

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In the works of Nabokov there is a combination of scryptography of symbols that the writer uses in an ambivalent way-playing with them (in the high, psychologic sense of the play also as ritual) and exploiting them as polygenetic symbols with different referent sources (Jewish Bible, Egypt, New Testament, antiquity, Dante, Cabala, alchemy, freemasonry). The article shows in a parallel investigation of the Russian and the English texts of the short story how the fantastique way from a museum in France to the native town of the hero, to Russia, due to the broad variety of intertextual allusions, motives and invariants of Nabokov's oeuvre can be understood as a ritual transition through the “underworld” to an “other world”.

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During the Roman Empire, when an autonomous Etruscan culture had disappeared long ago, aspects of the old Etruscan religion were still surviving and had been integrated in the Roman traditional religion: the haruspices, acting as diviners for public or private purposes all over the Roman empire, could interpret prodigies, what Roman priests and even augurs did not. When, with the Christians, a new religion arrived which risked to overthrow the old national religion of the Romans, Etruscan religious tradition played an important role against the rise of Christianity: with the sacred books of the Etruscans, with the prophets who were alleged to have created the Etruscan religious tradition, the Romans could find in their own heritage what could match the Bible of the Christians or their prophets. Unsurprisingly, haruspices were active in the resistance movement against the new religion.

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