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Thin-layer chromatography is a rapid and reliable working method for quantification of mycotoxins which is suitable for checking EC legislation aflatoxin limits for dried figs without an RP-18 pre-column cleaning step. We describe normal-phase chromatography on silica gel plates with 2.4:0.05:0.1:0.05 ( v/v ) methyl t -butyl ether-water-methanol-cyclohexane as mobile phase and reversed-phase chromatography on RP-18 plates with methanol-4% aqueous ZnSO 4 solution-ethyl methyl ketone 15:15:3 ( v/v ) as mobile phase. Sample pretreatment was by modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) extraction with tetrahydrofuran or acetone. NaCl was used as QuEChERS salt. Response was a linear function of amount chromatographed in the ranges 3 to 100 pg per zone for aflatoxins B 2 and G 2 , 10 to 350 pg per zone for the aflatoxins B 1 and G 1 , and 0.25 to 2.5 ng per zone for ochratoxin A. Quantification limits for the aflatoxins were between 13 and 35 pg per zone (equivalent to 1.5 and 2.4 ppb, taking the pre-treatment procedure into account). Ochratoxin A was detectable with a limit of quantification of 970 pg per zone, corresponding to 56 ppb in the sample. Normal phase and RP-18 separations work rapidly, reliably, and at low cost. They are also suitable for checking the content of the mycotoxins patulin, penicillic acid, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Antonio Logrieco, Antonio Moretti, Giuseppina Mule, Costantino Paciolla, and Alberto Ritieni

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals is a well known disease caused by a complex of several toxigenic species of Fusarium . FHB can reduce grain yield and quality, because of the accumulation of mycotoxins in cereal grains and derived foods and feeds. The pathogen mainly reported as causal agent of FHB is F. graminearum , that produces Deoxynivalenol (DON), the mycotoxin mostly associated to the disease. However in the last decade, in Europe, in addition to DON, the esadepsipeptides Enniatins (ENs) and Beauvericin (BEA) have been often reported as cereal contaminants, in association with different species such as F. avenaceum , F. poae , and F. tricinctum . The natural occurrence of high amounts of BEA and ENs in FHB small grains, evaluated with the phytotoxic and zootoxic properties of these metabolites, compel to an examination of their potential role in contributing to the severity of FHB. On the other hand, the recent studies that have provided further data on the biological role of the esadepsipeptide in plants and their toxicity toward plants, animal and humans, make it worthwhile to expand the knowledge on the significance and the toxicity of these frequent contaminants of cereals.

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A strain of Clonostachys rosea , ACM941 (ATCC #74447) was evaluated for its antibiosis to G. zeae in vitro and for controlling of fusarium head blight (FHB) under both greenhouse and field conditions, in comparison to the registered fungicide Folicur (tebuconazole). ACM941 reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogen by 53% in dual culture and completely suppressed the macroconidium germination of G. zeae in coculture for 6 hours. ACM941 reduced the perithecium production by more than 99% in leaf disc assay, 23–57% on debris, and 36–70% on infested kernels. When sprayed onto wheat heads prior to inoculation with G. zeae , ACM941 significantly reduced infected spikelets (IS) by 58–71% and fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) by 59-73% compared to the untreated disease control. Under the simulated natural epidemic conditions during 2005–2007, ACM941 reduced IS by 44–51%, FDK by 33–68%, and deoxynivalenol (DON) in grains by 10–28%. ACM941 was similar to Folicur in reducing the mycelial growth, spore germination, and perithecium production of G. zeae , but was less effective than Folicur in reducing IS, FDK, and DON in the field. Results of this research suggest that ACM941 is an effective antagonist against G. zeae and may be used as an alternative of chemical fungicides in an integrated FHB management program.

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Mycotoxins are gaining utmost importance due to the fact that aflatoxins were found to be natural carcinogens prevailing in food and feedstuffs. Chronic health risks are particularly prevalent in India where the diets of the people are highly prone to mycotoxins due to poor harvesting practices, improper storage and transport. The Fusarium toxins of greatest concern are fumonisins, trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol (DON) and T-2 toxin) and zearalenone. The current paper describes the disease outbreaks of Fusarium toxins in India due to ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food. DON was implicated in an outbreak of emetic syndrome in Kashmir State. An outbreak of acute foodborne disease caused by fumonisin has been reported in south India during 1995 affecting 1,424 people due to contaminated sorghum and maize. Trichothecenes have been involved in an acute human mycotoxicosis known as alimentary toxic aleukia (ATA) in India during 1987 and were attributed to the consumption of mouldy wheat. These outbreaks continue to be a significant health problem of people in India because of their poor purchasing ability that compels them to consume contaminated food.

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The genus Fusarium consists of multiple diverse species, which, as a result of their frequency in nature and pathogenicity, are significant in agriculture, as well as in human and veterinary medicine. In the course of field trials, by using standard phytopathological methods, and performing analyses of 19 different varieties of wheat and a portion of infected grains gathered from two distinct locations in Slovenia, we have determined the presence of various phytopathogenic species of the genus Fusarium. Because of the reliability, the experiment was performed in two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013. A laboratory analysis was conducted with an ELISA test on all grain samples for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration. The results show that the main differences in the infection levels (F. culmorum + F. graminearum; FC + FG) of wheat samples were found in Jable (humid area), at the same time showing higher levels of DON content than Rakičan (dry area). Such a statement is supported by correlation test, where correlation is evident between FC + FG and DON in every variation. The data for both wheat types (awned and awnless) together showed that the grain in Jable is statistically significant more infected by FC + FG when compared to that in Rakičan. Moreover, our descriptive analysis confirms that the infection rate of grain with FC and FG shows a strong correlation with the emergence of DON.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: G. Aureli, T. Amoriello, A. Belocchi, M.G. D’Egidio, M. Fornara, S. Melloni, and F. Quaranta

This study was carried out to determine the co-occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the sum of T2 and HT2 toxins in durum wheat samples belonging to eight cultivars grown in a national network experimental trials over a three-year period (2011–2013). The effect of several factors (cultivar, year and cultivation area) affecting the occurrence of the two types of mycotoxins and their relationship with several agronomic and grain quality parameters were assayed by statistical analysis (GLZ). The results highlighted the different trend of incidence and contamination rate of the two types of mycotoxins in relation to the cropping year and to the growing examined areas. Year and its interaction with the cultivation area was the most important factor affecting the DON contamination, whereas genotype and its interaction with the year mainly influenced T2+HT2 toxins contamination rate. DON and T2+HT2 contamination levels were not significantly correlated with each other. The evidence that the two types of mycotoxins were differently related with several agronomic and grain quality parameters could be connected to the effects of the respective fungal disease on wheat plant.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Maciej Buśko, Juliusz Perkowski, Marian Wiwart, Tomasz Góral, Elżbieta Suchowilska, Kinga Stuper, and Anna Matysiak

Abramson, D., Gan, Z., Clear, R.M., Gilbert, J., Marquardt, R.R. 1998. Relationship among deoxynivalenol, ergosterol and Fusarium exoantigens in Canadian hard and soft wheat. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 45

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Rita Jolánkai, Aliz Márton, László Wagner, and Ferenc Husvéth

and bile of deoxynivalenol following administration to lactating sheep. J. Environ. Sci. Health B22 p125–148 Trenholm H.M. Metabolic fate and elimination in milk, urine and bile of

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102 Jennings, P., Coates, M.E., Turner, J.A., Chandler, E.A., Nicholson, P. 2004. Determination of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol chemotypes of Fusarium culmorum isolates from England and

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Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of wheat causing significant yield and quality losses globally. Breeding for host plant resistance is an economic approach to FHB control and management. The aim of this study was to identify potential sources of resistance from newly developed recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat. A total of 778 RILs were developed through a bi-parental mating design followed by continuous selfing and selection. The RILs along with their eight parental lines (Baviaans, Buffels, Duzi, #910, #936, #937, #942 and #1036) and FHB resistant check cultivar ‘Sumai 3’ and susceptible check ‘SST 806’ were field evaluated across four environments in South Africa. Fusarium graminearum isolates were artificially inoculated to initiate infection and disease development. The percentage of wheat spikes showing FHB symptoms were scored. The research identified six percent of the RILs with disease resistance. Heritability for FHB resistance was the highest (64%) indicating the possibility of achieving higher selection gains for FHB resistance across the selected environments. The following five RILs were identified as potential sources of resistance: 681 (Buffels/1036-71), 134 (Duzi/910-8), 22 (Baviaans/910-22), 717 (Baviaans/937-8) and 133 (Duzi/910-7) with mean FHB scores of 6.8%, 7.8%, 9.5%, 9.8% and 10%, respectively. The selected lines expressed comparatively similar levels of resistance compared with that of Sumai 3. The identified RILs are useful genetic resources for resistance breeding against FHB disease of wheat. Since the presence of the F. graminearum is associated with deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation, the DON levels amongst the selected lines should be determined to ensure the release of improved wheat cultivars with reduced levels of DON accumulation.

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