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Franz Liszt begann erst in Weimar von etwa 1848 an, nach einer Komponistenlaufbahn von ungefahr anderthalb Jahrzehnten, seinen symphonischen Stil zu entwickeln, zunachst die Symphonischen Dichtungen, dann, ab 1854, auch die Faust- die Dante-Symphonie zu schreiben. Die Frage, die bei der Unterschung von Liszts Lebenswerk immer wieder auftaucht und schon die Zeitgenossen beschaftige, ist, warum Liszt erst damals gelang, den symphonischen Stil zu schaffen und als Komponist zur Reife zu gelangen

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When Liszt revised his earlier set of twelve piano studies at Weimar, publishing them as the Études d'exécution transcendante, he added titles to ten of them. No. 8 was given the German title Wilde Jagd, which in French is Le chasseur maudit. Why did Liszt choose this title? Did it have to do with the key of C minor? Which of the many legends on this theme was he thinking of? Did he know the popular poem Der wilde Jäger by Gottfried Bürger (1747-94), from which César Franck took the programme of his symphonic poem? Does the music of Liszt's study contain (like Bürger's poem) the idea of “maudit” as well as the “chasseur”? Other works by Liszt in C minor are examined, taken from the keyboard, orchestral and vocal music, to see whether they reflect a common programmatic idea associated with the key. If they do, then Liszt's piano study would form part of a larger mosaic.

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Hamlet, the last of Liszt’s Weimar symphonic poems, stands out from the others in the sheer detail of its references to the text of Shakespeare’s play. This paper considers how Liszt revised the symphonic poems in order to tighten the relationship between music and drama against the context of his encounter with a renowned and innovative Shakespearian actor, Bogumil Dawison. It demonstrates that the revisions made to Hamlet concerned incorporating extra ’scenes’ from the play using techniques associated with incidental music. Liszt also added programmatic instructions directly related to Dawison’s portrayal. All of this allows us to reconsider the position of Hamlet within the symphonic poems, as a forerunner to the highly programmatic Two Episodes from Lenau’s Faust and the melodramas that Liszt would compose immediately afterwards.

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Abstract

Die Studie ist ein Versuch auf dem Gebiet der musikalischen Quellenforschung; zwei Facetten der Genese von Liszts Klavierzyklus Années de pèlerinage werden darin behandelt. Zuerst werden vier handschriftliche Quellen der Dante-Sonate dargestellt, die bisher in die Untersuchungen zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Stückes nicht einbezogen bzw. falsch interpretiert wurden. Anhand dieser Quellen werden einige wichtige Unterschiede zwischen der Frühfassung bzw. der Fassung letzter Hand von Après un lecture du Dante nachgewiesen. Dann wird eine neue Lesart des Planes für den Italien-Band vom sogenannten Ce qu'on entend-Skizzenbuch geboten. Aufgrund dieses Planes wird die bisher unbekannte Beziehung der Genese der symphonischen Dichtung Tasso und des Klavierzyklus Années de pèlerinage dargestellt.

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It is evident that The Three Kings march of the Christus oratorio by Liszt is a verbunkos associated with the Eastern identity of Hungarians. What message did Liszt, who used musical motifs very consciously, wish to convey to the people of his time? I will approach the question not from a musicological aspect, but in the form of a cultural-studies type research. On the basis of the studies of Jácint Rónay and János Erdélyi dealing with national characterology, I wish to highlight how the Hungarian national identity and the myth of Eastern origin were related. I shall also examine in my paper paintings that bear close connection with the piece in question. Among these, Adoration of the Magi by Stephan Lochner is of vital importance, as according to the biographer of Liszt, Lina Ramann, it was the inspirational source of the movement in question of the Christus oratorio. The study attempts to find an answer to the relationship between the Lochner painting and The Three Kings march as well; and we shall see that it is also related to the question of the Eastern identity of the Hungarians.

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Musical artists in the 1830s were intrigued by Niccolò Paganini, with pianists being especially interested in transferring his music and style to their instrument. This article focuses on Paganini-inspired compositions by Carl Czerny, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, and Ignaz Moscheles, which focus on various aspects of the violinist’s artistry, including his performance style, his flair for the dramatic, pathetic, and unexpected, and his technical wizardry. Altogether these and other such works from the early 1830s provide a deeper context — arguably even a tradition — for Franz Liszt’s experimental compositions from the 1830s, particularly the “Clochette” Fantasy and the first version of the “Paganini” Etudes. Not only technically and performatively brilliant, these pieces also help establish the medium of mimesis as artistically valid. Liszt argued that this type of orientation was indispensable for the “artist of the future,” in which “virtuosity is a means, not an end.” Somewhat paradoxically then, after his death Paganini becomes the benchmark by which the transcendent artistry of composer-pianists is measured, and a baseline for further artistic experimentation. Thus Liszt’s return to Paganini in the 1840s and 1850s constitutes an ongoing effort to refine virtuosity in order to bring about artistic unification among musicians, regardless of instrumental specialty.

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This paper examines a painting by the prominent Biedermeier painter Josef Danhauser, Liszt at the Piano, a unique visual document of the Romantic generation’s cultic relationship and collective memory surrounding the virtually holy predecessor, Beethoven. It demonstrates the Beethoven reverence of (1) the commissioner Conrad Graf, a piano maker, who gave an instrument to Beethoven, (2) the painter Danhauser, who took the death mask of the German composer, and (3) Liszt, who considered himself the artistic heir to Beethoven. Although it is a well-known and thoroughly researched painting, its re-examination is still worthwhile. Focusing on aspects of cultural history, the contemporary reception of the painting should be reconsidered from a synthesizing point of view utilizing the results of art historical iconography and musicology. As a kind of cultural study, the paper attempts to demonstrate the background and motives that lead to the creation of the painting. I shall place the painting in the wider context of the history of ideas which is represented by the art-religious experience Liszt and his Paris companions gained from Beethoven’s music. An evaluation of the narrower, historical background — the Beethoven cult triggered by the piano concerts given by Liszt in Vienna in 1839–1840 — will also be discussed.

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This study examines an allegorical painting by Ary Scheffer, the Three Magi , which represents Liszt posing in the guise of the youngest king, depicted in a sentimental manner. It explores the intellectual background of the picture, the meaning and the reasons behind this peculiar role-play. By identifying the portrait of Liszt with one of the three kings, Scheffer promoted the Artist to a rank that was only attainable by the Biblical kings and the monarchs of this world looking for a model of identification in them through their portraits. The painter wished to provide a pictorial form to the ideal Artist as imagined by Liszt, thus creating the spiritual portrait of the musician desiring to theoretically define himself as an artist. For this reason the painter historicized the representational type of the character of the inspired artist and ingeniously associated it with the iconographic type of the Three Magi . The Three Magi thus becoming a framework-topic, emerged as a metaphor of the concept of the Artist of the age.

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Both Franz Liszt and Augusta Holmès wrote symphonic-choral works inspired by Dante; they composed them, however, in different periods. In this study we wish to associate the two composers not only for their respect and friendship that lasted several years, but because they have both offered an interpretation of Dante’s work, the Divina Commedia, that proved to be a significant source of inspiration for nineteenth-century musicians. What we find particularly important is not so much the substantial difference in their choice and interpretation of the text — that one could say was inspired by the spiritual component in the case of Liszt and by a patriotic political intent in the case of Holmès — but their common relationship with the municipality of Florence, in primis with Count Angelo de Gubernatis, organizer of a women’s exhibition in Florence in 1890. He first had relations with Liszt a few years before, later with Augusta Holmès. It was De Gubernatis who asked Holmès to compose the work Inno alla Pace in order to try to reconcile France and Italy. For this reason in Holmès’ work Beatrice became a symbol of peace among the people.

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Abstract

Die Abhandlung versucht, die Autorschaft des Themas Miserere d'après Palestrina, des achten Stückes von Liszts Klavierzyklus Harmonies poétiques et religieuses, nach der Tradition der Sixtinischen Kapelle zu erörtern. Das Miserere-Thema ist für die Liszt-Forschung nicht nur bei der Bestimmung der Inspirationsquelle wichtig, sondern erweist sich auch beim Vergleich mit anderen Themen von ähnlicher Fauxbourdon-Struktur als interessant. Von immer weiteren Perspektiven betrachtet, verspricht die Untersuchung des Tons der Komposition neue Zusammenhänge für den Aufbau des ganzen Zyklus und führt schließlich zur Festellung der Herausbildung eines eigenartigen Intonationskreises, dessen Entwicklung im Lebenswerk Liszts später eindeutig verfolgt werden kann.

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