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Summary Due to growing environmental concerns and the need to use less energy-intensive building products, alternatives and improvements to Portland cement (PC) are being actively researched worldwide. Use of supplementary materials is now a common practice where PC is the predominant component of inorganic building products. This study aims to investigate the potential of magnesia (MgO), derived from a naturally occurring raw material magnesite, as a supplementary material. Results from mortar samples prepared with 10 and 20% replacements of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) by MgO are presented. DTA-TG was used to study and characterise the hydration behaviour of MgO in OPC environment after 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days of moist curing. Microstructural and compressive strength determinations providing additional information on the influence of hydrated phases are also reported.

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Abstract  

To assess the safety of disposal of a radioactive waste-cement composite, the leaching of137Cs from a waste composite into a surrounding fluid has been studied. Leaching tests were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA.1 The leachability was measured as a function of bentonite clay to cement ratio. The fraction of137-Cs leached from a specimen of Portland cement is 0.03–0.13 at a leaching time of 400 d. Results presented in this paper are examples of data obtained in a 10 y mortar and concrete testing project, which will influence the design of the engineered trench system for a future Yugoslav radioactive waste storage center.2,3

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Abstract  

It was demonstrated that for the determination of the annual radiation dose for use in luminescence dating of sediments, one should be aware of possible material inhomogeneities when applying analysis methods (such as k 0-INAA) with sample intakes of the order of the gram (to be compared with Ge gamma-ray spectrometry in cylindrical or Marinelli geometry, the latter involving ∼1.5 kg material). Moreover, when trying to remove the inhomogeneity, care should be taken to avoid contamination of the elements investigated, especially in the case of low (K, Th, U)-content sand with a considerable abrasive action (such as the Ossendrecht coversand dealt with in the present work). Whereas contamination was indeed shown to happen when grinding the material in a porcelain mortar, a satisfactory technique proved to be agate-ball milling.

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Abstract  

The low temperature of decomposition of some calcium carbonates and the bending of the TG curves of hydrated cement between 500 and 800°C suggested the presence of some complex compound(s), which needed complementary investigation (XRD, TG). Stepwise transformation of portlandite (and/or lime) into calcium carbonate, with intermediate steps of calcium carbonate hydroxide hydrates (CCH-1 to CCH-5), was indicated by the previous study of two OPC. This was checked here on four cements ground for t g=15, 20, 25 and 30 min and hydrated either in water vapour, successively at RH=1.0, 0.95 and 0.5 for 2 weeks each (WR1, WR2 and WR3, respectively) or as mortars in liquid water (1m), followed by WR as above. The d[001] spacing of portlandite was confirmed to vary: here between the lowest and the highest standard values. The diffractograms of n=32 different samples were analyzed for presence of standard CCH peaks, generally slightly displaced. These were: CCH-1 [Ca3(CO3)2(OH)2]: N=11 peaks, of three different d[hkl] spacings, CCH-2 [Ca6(CO2.65)2(OH657)7(H2O)2]: N=10 for two d[hkl], CCH-3 [Ca3(CO3)2(OH)2·1.5H2O]: N=14 for five d[hkl], CCH-4, ikaite [CaCO3(H2O)6]: N=13 for six d[hkl], CCH-5[CaCO3(H2O)]: N=15 for five d[hkl]. Thus the most probable is the presence of the last three. The stepwise transformation of Ca(OH)2 into CaCO3 was confirmed: portlandite (varying d[001])→CCH-1→CCH-2→CCH-3→CCH-4→CCH-5→CaCO3 The content of CCH was the highest at t gr=15 min, decreasing down to t gr=25 min and increasing slightly at 30 min, as inferred from the number of the peaks observed. After cement powder hydration at RH=1.0 (WR1) peak number increased gradually from CCH-1 to CCH-5, whereas in the hydrated mortar (1m) the peak number decreased from CCH-1 to CCH-5, indicating the respective progress of the carbonation reaction.

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A mai mérnöki gyakorlatban a falazatok alakváltozási jellemzőit kísérleteken alapuló, fenomenológiai összefüggések segítségével határozzák meg. A cikkben arra a kérdésre keressük a választ, hogy meg lehet-e határozni a falazatot alkotó összetevők – a falazóelem, illetve a habarcs – alakváltozási jellemzőinek, geometriájának és a kötési módnak az ismeretében a falazat rugalmassági és nyírási modulusát. A cikk röviden ismerteti az alakváltozási jellemzők meghatározásának elméleti módjait, és új homogenizációs modelleket mutat be kitöltetlen állóhézagú falazat alakváltozási jellemzőinek meghatározására. A bemutatott és az általunk alkotott modellek használhatóságát végeselem-módszerrel igazoltuk.

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Abstract

The hydration and hardening processes of Portland cements prepared from clinkers mineralized with sodium fluoride and/or oxides (SnO2 or CuO) was studied. Type I cements (CEM I) were prepared by grinding with gypsum (5%) of clinkers obtained by the burning of an industrial raw mix with different mineralizers: sodium fluoride, oxides (CuO and SnO2) or mixtures of sodium fluoride and oxide (NaF + CuO or NaF + SnO2). The influence of foreign ions on the clinker morphology was assessed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The hydration processes of modified cements were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and thermal analysis techniques (TG and DTA). The main properties of the cements, i.e., flexural and compressive strengths, setting time, and soundness were also determined. A good correlation between the chemically bound water or portlandite content in pastes hydrated 2–28 days and compressive strength developed by mortars was observed. The influence of mineralizers on the kinetic of hydration processes and main properties of cements is different—0.5% NaF and 0.5% SnO2 and their mixture increase the rate of cement hydration and hardening processes, opposite to 0.5% CuO that reduce the rate.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Jinn-Shing Lee, Chung-King Hsu, Li-Kuo Lin, Chih-Long Chang, Shich Borjinn, and Chin-Wang Huang

Abstract  

Vitreous solder glasses, such as Mansol #40 and FEG-2002, are commercialized solder glasses, which are compression sealing glasses that can be used to solder materials with expansions between 55-68⊙10-7C-1, such as Al2O3. In order to understand and tailor the thermal behaviour of solder glasses, cylindrical-like glasses were first carefully ground with a stainless steel mortar and pestle. Initially, no exothermic or endothermic data were obtained from the DTA/DSC curves except those relating to melting. However, exothermic peaks appeared after the glass samples were re-melted. In this work, kinetic parameters such as the activation energy, and the morphology of the devitrification mechanisms for two kinds of solder glasses were also investigated, using non-isothermal DTA techniques. The activation energies ranged from 220 to 235 kJ mol-1 and the devitrification mechanism parameters were close to 1. This indicates that the devitrification mechanisms of the two kinds of solder glasses involve surface nuclei.

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Abstract  

Montmorillonite (M) saturated with H+,Li+,Na+,K+,Rb+,Cs+,NH4 +,Mg2+,Ca2+,Sr2+,Ba2+,Mn2+,Co2+,Cu2+,Al3+ and Fe3+ were dry-ground with urea (U) in mass ratios U/M between 0.1 and 2.0 in an agate mortar and diffracted by X-ray. Extensive swellings occurred with H-, Li-, Na-, di-and trivalent cation-clays, suggesting the formation of urea-montmorillonite intercalation complexes. Mechanochemically treated samples were heated at different temperatures up to 375°C. The rise in temperature was accompanied by a decrease in the basal spacing. There was a correlation between the results of the thermo-XRD-analysis and the fine structures of the urea-montmorillonite complexes described in the literature. Five stages in the basal spacing vs. temperature curves were identified. In the first stage (at 150°C) the decrease was due to dehydration. In the second stage (175°C) this dehydration was accompanied by some thermal intercalation of excess urea. The other stages (at 225, 325 and 375°C) were associated with the degradation of urea and the condensation of the degraded species to polymeric products. At 375°C Li-, Na-, K-NH4-, Mh-, Co- and Cu-montmorillonite collapsed, indicating that urea was evolved. The other urea-clay complexes did not collapse due to intercalated polymers formed by the degradation products of urea.

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Abstract  

To enhance the applicability of the nuclear analytical technique in the field of industry and the environment, the inorganic elemental content of the bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Bottom ash samples were monthly collected from an incinerator located at a metropolitan city in Korea, strained through a 5 mm sieve, dried by an oven and pulverized by an agate mortar. The samples were irradiated at the NAA #1 irradiation hole (thermal neutron flux: 2.92·1013 n·cm−2·s−1) in the HANARO research reactor of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and the irradiated samples were measured by a HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometer. Thirty-three elements including As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sb and Zn were analyzed by an absolute method. The quality control was conducted by a simultaneous analysis with NIST standard reference materials. The average concentrations of the major elements such as Ca, Fe, Al, Na, Mg, K and Ti measured in the sample were 19.9%, 4.85%, 3.79%, 2.11%, 1.84%, 1.22% and 1.02%, respectively. In addition, the concentrations of the hazardous metals like Zn, Cu, Cr, Sb and As were 0.77%, 0.31%, 729 mg·kg−1, 116 mg·kg−1 and 22.2 mg·kg−1, respectively.

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References [5] Gomes M. , Faria P. , Gonçalves T. ( 2018 ), Earth-based mortars for repair and protection of rammed earth walls

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