We present the kinetics of seven element profiles, macroscopic elements, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Ca, as well as Al and Br, in every
tissue of morningglory (Ipomoea nil L. c.v. Murasaki), from seedling to flowering stage. Barriers for the elements were formed even in the same tissue during
different growing phases. Most of Na and Al remained in root tissue, showing the first barrier to the upper part of the plant.
During the juvenile phase, the tissues lower than cotyledon stored the elements, especially Ca and Mg. The barrier at cotyledon
did not disappear completely until seed ripening stage, except for K. Generally, late developing stem showed lower accumulation
of the elements, which seemed to regulate the inflow of Mg, Ca, Cl and Br into flowering tissue. The concentrations of K,
Ca, Cl and Br in leaf were kept constant in spite of twice or three times higher concentration of these elements in leaf petiole.
After flowering, selective element accumulation was observed during seed development, where most of the elements were accumulated
into seed wall, not in seed. Higher concentration of the elements in elder leaf, which falls into ground and will be reused
as plant nutrient, might reflect the recycling system of the elements in plants.
Authors:Xiaoyi Li, Yiqun Wu, Donghong Gu, and Fuxi Gan
Four novel metal(II) complexes, Ni(L)2, Co(L)2, Cu(L)2, and Zn(L)2 (L = 5-(2-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)hydrazono)-1,3-diethyl-2-thioxo-dihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione),
were synthesized using the procedure of diazotization, coupling and metallization. Their structures were identified by elemental
analyses, 1H NMR, ESI-MS and FT-IR spectra. The effect of different central metal(II) ions on absorption bands of the metal(II) complexes
was researched. The thermal properties of the metal(II) complexes were investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters, such as activation energy (E*), enthalpy (∆H*), entropy (∆S*) and free energy of the decomposition (∆G*) are calculated from the TG curves applying Coats–Redfern method. The results show that the metal(II) complexes have suitable
electronic absorption spectra with blue-violet light absorption at about 350–450 nm, high thermal stability with sharp thermal
A U.K. field experiment compared a complete factorial combination of three backgrounds (cvs Mercia, Maris Huntsman and Maris Widgeon), three alleles at the Rht-B1 locus as Near Isogenic Lines (NILs: rht-B1a (tall), Rht-B1b (semi-dwarf), Rht-B1c (severe dwarf)) and four nitrogen (N) fertilizer application rates (0, 100, 200 and 350 kg N/ha). Linear+exponential functions were fitted to grain yield (GY) and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE; GY/available N) responses to N rate. Averaged over N rate and background Rht-B1b conferred significantly (P < 0.05) greater GY, NUE, N uptake efficiency (NUpE; N in above ground crop / available N) and N utilization efficiency (NUtEg; GY/N in above ground crop) compared with rht-B1a and Rht-B1c. However the economically optimal N rate (Nopt) for N:grain price ratios of 3.5:1 to 10:1 were also greater for Rht-B1b, and because NUE, NUpE and NUtE all declined with N rate, Rht-Blb failed to increase NUE or its components at Nopt. The adoption of semi-dwarf lines in temperate and humid regions, and the greater N rates that such adoption justifies economically, greatly increases land-use efficiency but not necessarily NUE.
Transition elements, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Zn, as well as Al concentrations in all tissues of the morning-glory (Ipomoea nil L. c.v. Murasaki) with developing seed were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Aluminum as well as most of the transition elements were found to be accumulated in the root. Only small amounts of the elements were accumulated in the upper part of the plant, except for Cr and Mn. However, when the elements at the upper part of the plant were analyzed, the highest concentration of Al, Sc, V, Fe and Zn were shown to be at the tip of the eldest leaf and cotyledon. In the case of Co, the elemental concentration was high in the lower stems, suggesting a barrier to transfer of the element to the leaf from the stem. A barrier of the element movement from leaf petiole to the leaf was not found in most of the elements investigated. In the ripening stage of the seed, highly selective elemental concentrations in seed were found.
Authors:N. Sinha, V. Priyanka, K.T. Ramya, T. Leena, J.A. Bhat, Harikrishna, N. Jain, P.K. Singh, G.P. Singh, and K.V. Prabhu
Abiotic stresses are major constraints to wheat productivity in many parts of the world. Tolerance to abiotic stresses can be achieved indirectly by selection for morpho-physiological traits. Physiological trait based breeding has been associated with improved performance under stress; and hence can combat and adapt wheat to drought and heat stress. Therefore, in the present study, phenotyping was carried out for agro-physiological traits in 52 diverse wheat germplasm lines under timely sown, rainfed and late sown environments for two years. Mean yield of the genotypes over the six environments were positively correlated with NDVI, days to maturity and negatively correlated with canopy temperature. The phenotypic data validated marker-trait associations of a number of meta-QTLs identified earlier for different physiological and agronomic traits. Six and seven meta-QTL genomic regions were found to be consistent in their expression for two years under rainfed/restricted irrigation and late sown environments, respectively. Expression analysis of the underlying candidate gene AK248593.1 in meta-QTL26 region revealed two folds higher expression in the NILs carrying the co-localized SSR markers. The linked markers of the thirteen meta-QTL regions associated with different traits can be used for effective transfer of the QTLs through marker assisted selection in wheat breeding programmes.
Authors:R. Olar, M. Badea, D. Marinescu, E. Iorgulescu, and S. Stoleriu
Summary This paper deals with the first investigation concerning the thermal behaviour of Ni(II) complexes with ligands having biguanide moieties. The new complex [NiL(1)](ClO4)2·2.5H2O (1) with the Schiff base resulted in [2+1] condensation of N,N-dimethylbiguanide with pentane-2,4-dione (L(1)) and the complex [Ni2L(2)](ClO4)4 (2), with the Schiff base, L(2), resulted through the oxidative condensation of L(1) have been synthesized and characterised. The bonding and stereochemistry of the complexes have been characterized by IR and electronic spectra. The cyclic voltammograms show the characteristic waves for mononuclear and respectively binuclear Ni(II) complexes and indicate that both complexes exhibit catalytic effects on the CO2 electrochemical reduction. The thermal behaviour provided confirmation of the complexes composition as well as the number and the nature of water molecules and the intervals of thermal stability. The different nature of the ligands generates a different thermal behaviour for complexes.
Authors:V. Rahhal, O. Cabrera, A. Delgado, C. Pedrajas, and R. Talero
The need for cements or other cementitious materials that afford high early age mechanical strength has led to the use of
extremely reactive pozzolanic additions such as silica fume, nanosilica, metakaolin and similar. The inclusion of the right
proportion of such pozzolanic additions stimulates portland cement hydration, i.e., directly, as they are initially moistened by the mixing water, non-directly when they act as “seed crystals”, and indirectly, because of the pozzolanic reaction between the addition particles and the portlandite forming from the portland cement components
hydration; since this reaction is characterized by its intensity and speed, when its occurs it prevails over the other two.
Indirect stimulation also causes the fraction of portland cement in the blend to release more heat of hydration than pure portland
cement, and its does so on a scale consistent with the existence of a calorific synergic effect. Such greater heat is released in the early stages of hydration primarily by C3A and C3S that react with the mixing water to respectively generate ettringite and hydrated calcium silicates. When portland cements
have a low to nil C3A content, less heat of hydration is released due to the absence of an AFt phase that could be transformed into AFm. However, when extremely active pozzolanic additions, such as silica fume, are used, ettringite forms from C4AF, further contributing to origin amounts of hydration heat released comparable to the above calorific synergic effect.
This paper presents the preliminary conclusions of an ongoing research project on the subject of the translation of Greek restaurant menus. In the first part the rationale and the design of the study are described and a number of preliminary comments about the translation event are made. The second part deals with the linguistic and functional characteristics of restaurant menus and the final part focuses on the translation strategies used to deal with cultural diversity and on the relation which these strategies bear to the type and function of the text to be translated. It appears that in most cases the strategies used in translating menus do not lead either to a functionally equivalent or a professionally satisfactory target text. However, the deficiencies recorded are due to the inadequate abilities of those who provide the translations rather than to the fact that translation is practiced from the mother tongue into a foreign language. Translating is often viewed as a simple process of reproducing linguistic surface structures in another language. This attitude points, among others, to a lack of professionalism, the impact of which is considerable — customer dissatisfaction — and ultimately reduces to nil the mediating mission of translation.
Authors:Hoda Mansour, Sahar Shoman, and M. Kdodier
Five cyanophyte species (Amorphonostoc punctiforme, Gloeocapsa turgidus, Sphaeronostoc coeruleum, Stratonostoc linckia f. spongiaeforme and Synechococcus cedrorum) were isolated and identified from sandy Egyptian soils. Polysaccharides extracted from these species showed a pronounced antiviral activity against Rabies and Herpes-1 viruses represented by the absence of the characteristic cytopathic effects of these viruses. It was found that 100 μg polysaccharide/ml induced 100% inhibition of the two viruses which, depending on the polysaccharide concentration. Both of Gloeocapsa turgidus and Synechococcus cedrorum showed higher antiviral activity against rabies virus than that against herpes-1 virus. Amorphonostoc punctiforme showed nil to weak antiviral activity against both viruses. It was suggested that polysaccharides of such species of cyanophyte react against human and animal viruses. So, it could be concluded that there is a need for further studies to explain the mode of action of these substances on the replication of different viral origins to know how one deals with cyanophyte polysaccharides as antiviral substances in the most suitable and effective manner.
Authors:D. Ladhalakshmi, M. Ramiah, T. Ganapathy, M. Krishna Reddy, S. E. Khabbaz, S. Karunakaran, and A. Kamalakannan
A new necrosis viral disease was observed in blackgram, showed brown necrotic rings along with veinal and stem necrosis. The virus was mechanically inoculated on the local lesion host, cowpea cv. 152 and maintained in the local lesion host throughout the study. Yield studies under pot culture experiment showed 10- to 30-day-old plants were highly susceptible and the yield became almost nil. By using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and indirect Direct Antigen Coated-Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (DAC-ELISA) studies the virus was identified as Tobacco streak virus (TSV). The ultraviolet absorbance of the purified virus was measured and the ratio of A260/A280 was determined as 1.41. Polyclonal antiserum was raised against blackgram necrosis virus in New Zealand white rabbit and the titre value was determined as 1: 200. Direct antigen coating-ELISA was used to detect the virus concentration in various plant parts and stem portion recorded maximum virus concentration. TSV in blackgram was not transmitted through seeds.