The American National Standard "Calibration and Use of Germanium Spectrometers for the Measurement of Gamma-Ray Emission Rates of Radionuclides" has been reissued as N42.14-1999. The performance tests in it can be used to make sure that a gamma-spectroscopy program is set up correctly. The same tests can also be used to verify the improvements made by program developers. However, sometimes the tests in this ANSI standard are not enough. To satisfy certain quality assurance requirements, it is necessary to demonstrate that the results are correct either by hand calculations or by comparing the results to known values.
This paper presents and interprets photoacoustic (PA) infrared spectra and four different thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric specific heat and thermal effusivity) for four sets of hydrocarbon cokes. A total of 12 samples, with varying histories, were analyzed. These cokes are a by-product of the upgrading of bitumen to Syncrude Sweet Blend (a blend of hydrotreated components), and were obtained from several locations in the thermal cokers operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. PA infrared spectroscopy provides detailed information on the amount and type of residual aromatic hydrocarbons in cokes; aliphatic hydrocarbons are sometimes detected in smaller quantities. Three of the thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, diffusivity and effusivity) display systematic differences among the cokes. On the other hand, volumetric specific heat hardly varies, a phenomenon that accounts for the observed proportionality between thermal diffusivity and conductivity. Analogous relationships exist between thermal effusivity and both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity for these cokes. The magnitudes of these three thermophysical properties tend to increase as aromatics contents, determined by PA spectroscopy, decrease.
Authors:J. Ladrière, S. Göbölös, F. Delannay, and B. Delmon
A57Co doped unsupported CoMo sulfide catalyst with atomic composition ratio r=Co/(Co+Mo)=0.3 was prepared by the homogeneous sulfide precipitation method and exposed to a series of reduction-sulfidation treatments. The treated samples were analyzed by Mössbauer emission spectroscopy using very long accumulation times. Computer decomposition of the spectra revealed the presence of five different cobalt species which were identified as Co9S8, CoS1+x, and three species related to the Co–Mo–S structure. Reduction of the sample under atmospheric pressure of H2 at (and above) 573 K causes an increase of the amount of Co9S8 at the expense of all other species. These results afford a new insight into the stability of the Co–Mo–S structure and of the sulfur rich CoS1+x phase under hydrotreating conditions.
Authors:D. Upp, R. Keyser, D. Gedcke, T. Twomey, and R. Bingham
All nuclear spectroscopy systems, whether measuring charged particles, X-rays, or gamma-rays, exhibit dead time losses during the counting process due to pulse processing in the electronics. Several techniques have been employed in an effort to reduce the effects of dead time losses on a spectroscopy system including live time clocks and loss-free counting modules. Live time extension techniques give accurate results when measuring samples in which the activity remains roughly constant during the measuring process (i.e., the dead time does not change significantly during a single measurement period). The loss-free counting method of correcting for dead time losses, as introduced by HARMS and improved by WESTPHAL (US Patent No. 4,476,384) give better results than live time extension techniques when the counting rate changes significantly during the measurement. However, loss-free counting methods are limited by the fact that an estimation of the uncertainty associated with the spectral counts can not be easily determined, because the corrected data no longer obeys Poisson statistics. Therefore, accurate analysis of the spectral data including the uncertainty calculations is difficult to achieve. The Ortec® DSPECPLUS
implements an improved zero dead time method that accurately predicts the uncertainty from counting statistics and overcomes the limitations of previous loss-free counting methods. The uncertainty in the dead-time corrected spectrum is calculated and stored with the spectral data (Patent Pending). The GammaVision-32® analysis algorithm has been improved to propagate this uncertainty through the activity calculation. Two experiments are set up to verify these innovations. The experiments show that the new method gives the same reported activity and associated uncertainties as the well-proven Gedcke-Hale live time clock. It is thus shown that over a wide range of dead times the new ZDT method tracks the true counting rate as if it had zero dead time, and yields an accurate estimation of the statistical uncertainty in the reported counts.
Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) kaolinite complexes of low-and high-defect kaolinites were studied by thermo-IR-spectroscopy analysis.
Samples were gradually heated up to 170°C, three hours at each temperature. After cooling to room temperature, they were pressed
into KBr disks and their spectra were recorded. From the spectra two types of complexes were identified. In the spectrum of
type I complex two bands were attributed to asymmetric and symmetric H-O-H stretching vibrations of intercalated water, bridging
between DMSO and the clay-O-planes. As a result of H-bonds between intercalated water molecules and the O-planes, Si-O vibrations
of the clay framework were perturbed, in the low-defect kaolinite more than in the high-defect. Type II complex was obtained
by the thermal escape of the intercalated water. Consequently, the H-O-H bands were absent from the spectrum of type II complex
and the Si-O bands were not perturbed. Type I complex was present up to 120°C whereas type II between 130 and 150°C. The presence
of intercalated DMSO was proved from the appearance of methyl bands. These bands decreased with temperature due to the thermal
evolution of DMSO but disappeared only in spectra of samples heated at 160°C. Intercalated DMSO was H-bonded to the inner-surface
hydroxyls and vibrations associated with this group were perturbed. Due to the thermal evolution of DMSO the intensities of
the perturbed bands decreased with the temperature. They disappeared at 160°C together with the methyl bands.
Although thermogravimetric analysis (TG) has become an indispensable tool for the analysis and characterization of materials,
its scope is limited as no information is obtained about the qualitative aspects of the evolved gases during the thermal decomposition.
For processes involving mass loss, a powerful technique to provide this missing information is Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy (FT-IR) in combination with TG. It supplies a comprehensive understanding of thermal events in a reliable and
meaningful way as data are obtained from a single sample under the same conditions.
The coupling TG/FT-IR is used in fuel analysis for the identification of residual volatiles, to determine their sequence of
release and to resolve thermogravimetric curves. In this work, the usefulness of TG/FT-IR for characterizing middle distillate
fuel residues is illustrated with some typical examples of recent application. A Bio-Rad FTS 25 FT-IR spectrometer coupled
with a TA Instruments TGA 2950 thermogravimetric analyzer was used for data aquisition.
The results obtained demonstrate the utility of this combined technique in determining the decomposition pathway of tarry
materials at various stages of pyrolysis, thereby allowing new insights into the complex thermal behaviour of hydrocarbon
Authors:G. Suber, M. Bertolotti, C. Sibilia, A. Ferrari, and F. Genel Ricciardiello
Transverse photothermal deflection spectroscopy(PDS) is applied for the determination of thermal diffusivities of solid surfaces. The theory of PDS is briefly recalled and some approximated analytical formulae concerning the transverse configuration are derived. In materials where the thermal diffusivity is smaller than that of the air, the dependence of the deflection angle on the displacement between pump and probe beams is shown to have a minimum that relates to the thermal diffusivity, thereby allowing its straightforward measurement. Measurements carried out on Al2O3 samples with different porosities at room temperature show a good agreement between experiment and theory.
Authors:J. Kučerík, H. Čechlovská, P. Bursáková, and M. Pekař
The thermodynamic stability of lignite humic acids (sodium salt) aggregates was studied by high resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy
within the temperature interval from 5 to 90°C. The changes in differential ultrasonic velocity (U12) showed strong differences
among humic solutions within the concentration range from 0.005 to 10 g L−1. Measurement revealed several transitions which were attributed to the weakening of humic secondary structure. Concentration
around 1 g L−1 seemed to be a limit under which the change of the prevalence and importance of hydration occurred. Above this concentration
the difference in U12 decreased following the temperature increase which was explained as a dominance of hydrophilic hydration.
In contrast, below this concentration, the temperature dependence of U12 resulted in increasing tendency which was attributed
to the prevalence of hydrophobic hydration, i.e. uncovering of apolar groups towards surrounding water. Additional experiments
in which the humic sample was modified by hydrochloric acid resulted in a slight structural stabilization which lead to the
conclusion that humic micelle-like subaggregates form an open-layer assemblies easily accessible for interaction with an extraneous
molecule. That was partly verified by addition of propionic acid which brought about even larger reconformation of humic aggregates
and exhibition of polar groups towards hydration water.
The reversible changes in humate solutions induced by elevated temperatures provided the evidence about the existence of significant
physical interactions among humic molecules resulting in formation of various kinds of aggregates. The nature of aggregates,
mainly the stability and conformation, strongly depends on the concentration. Evidently, the changes observed in this work
cannot be simply explained as expansions or conformational changes of macromolecular coils.
Noble metals have been analyzed in high purity copper and a platinum ore to be certified as reference materials. Analyses
were performed by photon activation analyses using both conventional gamma and low energy photon spectroscopy. Our values
agree very well with those of other laboratories using various analysis methods. Low energy photon spectroscopy is more advantageous
than gamma spectroscopy from various points of view.
Authors:P. Nayak, D. Das, P. Singh, and V. Chakravortty
Selected numbers of representative banded iron formations collected from various mines of iron ore supergroups were investigated
using ore microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The ore microscopy results have been corroborated and compared with Mössbauer
spectroscopy outcome. Different iron-bearing minerals present in these banded iron-formations have been quantified by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The obtained results have been discussed on the basis of degree of martization and goethite-hematite