In this work the transfer behavior of long living radionuclides from the Thorium decay series (Ra-228, Th-228, Th-232) as well as of K-40 and Cs-137 is studied. In a small area of middle Europe (southeast Gemany) showing an increased Thorium content of soil the activity concentrations in samples of feed plants, farm animals, farm animal products, roe deer has been determined. The concentration ratios feed-to-animal tissue and to animal products are calculated indicating a significantly enhanced transfer from feed to roe deer tissues. Determinations of the activity concentrations in fish (carp), pig (tissues), egg, milk complete this examinations. Among all studied samples which are important for human nourishing eggs and carp cause the greatest exposure by ingestion.
Various animal models in farm and laboratory animals indicate the possible pathological effect of soybean feeding. Immunity and tolerance to oral soybean intake and a generalised meta-model of effects are discussed. It seems that FAO/WHO recommendations will have to be considered in assessing the biological value of soybean feed sources. Determination of hull content, antigenic potential, conglycinin and trypsin inhibitor content is warranted in view of the future component pricing of soybean meals.
Authors:N. Stradling, G. Etherington, A. Hodgson, M.R. Bailey, S. Hodgson, P. Pellow, A.L. Shutt, A. Birchall, E. Rance, D. Newton, and K. Fifield
Due to the paucity of human data after inhalation of different chemical forms of radionuclides, the implications for human exposure are often based on animal studies. This paper describes biokinetic studies of plutonium nitrate and gadolinium oxide in human volunteers and rats. The results, together with information from other studies with radionuclides, suggests that animal studies can be used with advantage for assessing the biokinetic behavior in humans, and for providing guidance on the assessment of intake and optimal monitoring regimens.
The Slovene ballad Animals Bury the Hunter is an animal narrative song of jocular character. It tells of the burial of a hunter and of a funeral procession not composed of humans but wild animals (a bear, foxes, hares, a wolf, cranes and partridges, song birds, etc.) who seem to derive great joy from the event. The analysis of the song's 31 variants reveals the changes made to the song over the course of time, as it survived through different historical periods and spread throughout Slovenia. I attempt to show that the ballad was used as a model for painted beehive panels featuring the same motif. In addition to the analysis, I am concerned with the sociological and ethical elements of the ballad. The paper proposes at least three possible theses: 1. The song is part of the conception of a topsy-turvy world, where the roles and mutual relationships of people and animals are reversed in an ironic sociological view of the world. 2. The song is a critique of one class by another: peasants mocking hunters who belong to a different social stratum. 3. The song is a representation of “pre-Cartesian” times, when animals were not “mere machines” without feelings, to be treated by man as objects with no ethical significance. It points to the ethical aspects of the human treatment of animals.
The analysis of actinides and radiostrontium in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There
is a need to measure actinide isotopes and strontium with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish,
deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid separation method has been developed that allows the measurement of plutonium,
neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100–200 g) with high chemical
recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin®, TRU Resin® and DGA Resin®
cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np),
uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alphaspectrometry. Strontium
is collected on Sr Resin® from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal
tissue samples, the actinides and 89/90Sr are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal
tissue matrices. Vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates is used to minimize sample preparation time.
Authors:E. Fernandes, N. Nepomuceno, A. Trevizam, and H. Amorim
The high costs of cereals and vegetable protein supplements used for animal nutrition have directed much attention toward
non-conventional alternative protein sources. Brazil has a significant potential to provide such material, since it is the
world’s largest producer of ethanol (13 billion liters per year) derived from fermentation by yeasts (sugar cane being the
basic raw material). Distilleries are recovering surplus yeast to produce dry yeast for use in animal food formulations. With
regard to the yeast biomass elemental composition, INAA analyses performed on a pool of samples from various different fermentations
have shown the presence of various trace elements, e. g. As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Sm, Th,
and Zn. This reinforces the need for additional studies concerning the suitability of yeast in terms of maximum tolerable
levels of these elements in formulations for domestic animals.
The soul of man resides in different parts of the body on each day of the month. The concerned body part should be handled with care, as if it is hurt, it causes extreme harm. The yurt, just like animals, also has a soul. The paper presents five small hand-books — from the collection of the Oriental Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, from the St. Petersburg Oriental Collection of the Russian Academy and from private possession — indicating the abode of the soul in humans, the yurt and animals.
Authors:N. Wogman, R. Brodzinski, and L. Van Middlesworth
A method of prospecting for uranium and thorium is proposed based on uptake of their radioactive daughters226Ra and228Ra by plants, the collection of plant material by herbivores, the concentration of the radioactive species by specific animal
tissues, and the subsequent gamma-ray analysis of the tissues.
Authors:I. Kiss, S. Kecskeméti, J. Tanyi, S. Belák, C. Ros, and S. B. Klingeborn
The quasispecies nature of three animal pathogenic RNA viruses of field origin was examined by testing variants of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) originating from geographically different areas, feline coronavirus (FCoV) detected from the same animal by successive sampling, and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) originating from successive outbreaks in the same geographic area. Clinical samples were investigated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and ensuing single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) assay. By the combination of these methods even subtle differences could be detected among the amplified fragments of the same virus species of different origin. FCoV proved to comprise the most and CSFV the less heterogeneous virus quasispecies. The results show that the combination of RT-PCR and SSCP provides novel and highly sensitive means for the characterisation of RNA viruses, with special regard to genome composition, evolution, features of pathogenicity and molecular epizootiology.