Authors:A. Păucean, D.C. Vodnar, V. Mureșan, F. Fetea, F. Ranga, S.M. Man, S. Muste, and C. Socaciu
The lactic acid bacteria are key microorganisms for the production and preservation of fermented dairy products, cheeses, sourdough bread, and lacto-fermented vegetables. This study was developed to monitor lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, as single strains and combined, in fermenting media by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy coupled to multivariate statistical analysis. Media containing different mixtures of carbohydrates were chosen as model fermenting media for monitoring lactic acid concentration by infrared spectroscopy, due to the fact that vegetable and animal food matrices could contain different carbohydrates as carbon sources. Three different types of media were obtained by adding different carbohydrates to a basic MRS medium. HPLC was used as reference method for lactic acid quantification. The calibration set (n=36) was used for building model, while a validation set (n=13) for testing the robustness of the developed model. The coefficients of determination between predicted and reference values were 0.986 and 0.965, while root mean square error for calibration and validation sets recorded values of 0.127 and 0.263 g·l−1, respectively. Results confirmed the efficiency of FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistics, as a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective tool for routine monitoring of lactic acid.
Authors:J. Agbede, M. Adegbenro, O. Aletor, and A. Mohammed
Del leaf meal (LM), leaf protein concentrates (LPC) and LPC fibre residues (LR) were characterised and the biological activity of LPC was studied. Five infant weaning foods based on
-LPC (VALPC) were compared with three coded commercial infant weaning foods in a 4-week feeding trial using rats as animal model. The LM contained 318.2±2.11 g kg
crude protein and this increased by 38.5% to 517.4±1.20 g kg
in LPC. Also, the LM contained 96.0±1.8 g kg
crude fibre and this decreased by 81.25% to 18.0±1.1 g kg
in LPC. The gross energy in the LM (1.56 MJ kg
) increased by 17.9% to 1.90 MJ kg
in LPC. The LPC contained higher Na, Ca, Mg, K and Fe than either the LM or LR, while fractionation reduced phytin and tannin contents. Rats fed solely on VALPC lost weight in the biological activity trial. Rats fed 25% VALPC+75% soybean meal (SBM) combination had the highest final weight (FW), while rats fed CFN, a coded commercial food, had the smallest. It was concluded that 25% VALPC+75% SBM mixture is the optimal combination.
Authors:A. Vető-Kiszter, I. Schuster-Gajzágó, and B. Czukor
Mustard seed (
L.) has valuable chemical composition and its cultivation in moderate climate, especially in Hungary is economically feasible. In spite of the advantageous chemical composition and colloid-chemical properties, the use of mustard seed flour is limited in food industry or in animal feeding because of its pungent taste. The pungent taste develops through the action of myrosinase; but it could be eliminated by heat inactivation of the enzyme. In the course of our preliminary experiments, it was observed that heat inactivation of the myrosinase enzyme depended on mustard variety. The heat stability of myrosinase enzyme prepared from different mustard varieties was examined and compared in our research work. Crude myrosinase was prepared from three mustard genotypes (Budakalászi, Tilney, and LM-1 (a low erucic acid content cultivar) and the heat stability was determined at 60, 70 or 80 °C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The semi-logarithmic plots of myrosinase activity as a function of time at different temperatures indicated that heat inactivation of crude myrosinase enzyme follows first-order kinetics. Characterising the rate of inactivation by the slope of the curve, significant differences were established in heat stability between genotypes at 60 °C. There were no significant differences between varieties at higher temperatures (70 and 80 °C). Longer than 10 min heat treatment causes more than 90% inactivation of the enzyme.
Selenium intake of the human population is very distinct and depends on the Se-content of consumed food. The higher intake of selenium can decrease the risk of many health problems in human and animal organisms. The main task of this work was to obtain new comparable data on Se content of Agaricus bisporus mushroom. The selenium content of different, common varieties of Agaricus bisporus and of its three cultivation's flushes was determined. The Se content of varieties varies between 0.46 mg kg-1 d.m. and 5.63 mg kg-1 d.m., and the average content is 2.82 (± 1.48) mg kg-1 d.m. The caps of fruit bodies have always higher selenium content than the stipe. The average cap/stipe selenium ratio is 1.29. The changes of Se concentration during the cultivation (in cultivation's flushes) are not significant. The most important cultivated mushroom species of the world (Agaricus bisporus) has, in addition to other more valuable properties, a remarkable Se-content. Consumption of fruit bodies can improve the Se supply of human organism, i.e. some health risks can be decreased.
Benders™ dictionary of nutrition and food technology is an essential book for nutritionists, food scientists, food technologists and anyone interested in nutrition, food science and food technology. This book gives correct interpretation of terminology of nutrition, food science and technology, hereby it is very useful for anyone read scientific review or attended lecture in subject of nutrition, food science and food technology. According to importance and connection of nutrition, food science and technology with other division of learning this dictionary may be important for those interested in agriculture, horticulture, social science and law, human and animal health protection too. This book is the seventh edition; the first edition was published 40 years ago with definitions of 2000 terms. This new edition includes already more than 5000 entries and it has been supplemented new techniques and terms by increase of knowledge and introduction of new technologies as e.g. high-frequency heating, microwave-heating, electroporation and functional foods, which are in the limelight. The dictionary also includes old terms that have become obsolete, in order to assist those referring to earlier literature. In appendix of book there are comprised voluble information about permitted food additives in EU, nomenclature of fatty acids, recommended nutrient intakes in the USA and EU, increasing the usefulness of it for user.
food and animal feeding stuffs –Horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulasepositive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species). No. 6888.
ISO ( 2002 ): Microbiology of food and animal feeding
Authors:A. Lugasi, K. Neszlényi, J. Hóvári, K. V. Lebovics, A. Hermán, T. Ács, J. Gundel, and I. Bodó
Fat content and fatty
acid composition were investigated in Musculus gluteus medius of pigs
from two different breeds: traditional Hungarian Mangalica and a crossbreed of
Hungarian Large White and Dutch Landrace. Animals of both varieties were
divided into two groups and were kept individually on control or experimental
mixtures of feeds. Experimental feed contained significantly higher amount of
linoleic and linolenic acid than the control one. Significantly higher fat
content was detected in meat of Mangalica pigs kept on both feed mixtures than
in those of crossbred. The proportion of saturated fatty acids was nearly the
same in the meat of both genotypes. More monounsaturated fatty acids were
detected in Mangalica meat than in crossbred ones expressed in percent of total
fatty acids and absolute amount, as well. As a result of experimental diet,
percentage and absolute amount of oleic acid decreased significantly in both
genotypes. Less polyunsaturated fatty acids expressed as percent of total acids
were observed in the muscle of Mangalica than in those of crossbred ones.
Absolute amount and the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids
(especially linoleic and linolenic acids) increased significantly as a result
experimental diets. The ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids changed beneficially
in both genotypes consuming a diet containing 20% full-fat soy from 13.6:1 to
10.0:1 in Mangalica and from 15.4:1 to 10.3:1 in crossbred genotype. According
to present results, it has became clear that the fatty acid composition of the
meat of the traditional Hungarian Mangalica can be successfully modified by the
diet, and this manipulation can make the meat healthier in spite of its high