Authors:A. Grimanis, N. Kalogeropoulos, V. Kilikoglou, and M. Vassilaki-Grimani
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive and accurate multielement analytical method that is widely applied to the investigation of environmental and archaeological problems. The first part of this paper is a review of pollution studies of toxic trace elements in sediments, seawater and marine organisms of Saronikos Gulf, Greece by NAA. The second part of this paper is a review of provenance studies based on minor and trace element research in ancient ceramics, obsidian, flint, limestone, marble and lead by Instrumental NAA, performed at the NCSR Demokritos.
A new equipment for precise INAA studies of archaeological samples is described. It includes a systematic search for avoiding
(or giving signal for) any trouble during the sample changing, counting and recording of data. Labels and parameters necessary
are also automatically required and recorded with mean of original solutions Positioning of samples is precisely reproductible.
Records on magnetic tape are then processed on a CDC 6600 computer with help of a programme including numerous tests in order
to avoid experimental artificats. The device has been realized in the Groupe d'Archéologie Nucléaire d'Orsay-Saclay and is
in use in the Laboratoire Pierre Süe in Saclay.
Authors:C. Munita, R. Paiva, M. Alves, P. de Oliveira, and E. Momose
Forty one ceramic fragment samples from Rezende archaeological site, Centralina city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were analyzed using INAA to determine the concentration of 24 chemical elements: As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn. Three multivariate statistical methods, cluster, discriminant and principal components analysis were performed on the data set. The results showed that the large majority of the samples (94%) can be considered to be manufactured using the same source of raw material.
Authors:S. Rahman, M. Hamzah, A. Wood, M. Elias, and K. Zakaria
The multi-elemental content of sixteen glass beads and eight glass samples from archeological site Sg Mas in Bujang Valley
(finding from 5 th to 14 th century) were assayed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Ten beads differed in colour and eight
of them were opaque. Contents of twentyfour elements, which might be present in the samples as a flux, stabilizer, colorants
or opacifier were examined. The elements Al, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mn, Na, Sc,Th, Zn and Zr were detectable in all samples.
On the other hand, concentration of the elements As, Ba, Ca, Cs, Rb, Sb, Ta, Ti, U, and V were below the detection limit in
some samples. The concentration of elements found are discussed in terms of color and/or opacity of the glass bead and glass
samples. Although the elemental composition does not fully explain the color and opacity of the studied materials, it can
still be used as fingerprint of the glass used for the bead making.
This paper discusses the Mithraic reliefs found in Etruria (Regio VII). The reliefs are analysed and their iconographic, archaeological and chronological features compared with a view to advancing new proposals on the cult of Mithras in the area concerned. The paper focuses first on the new Mithraic relief discovered in Veii and discusses the presence of a specific object that constitutes the most original iconographic feature of the relief. It can be seen aligned behind Mithras' head, which obscures its central part: considering its shape and the presence of the quiver over Mithras' right shoulder, the object can be identified as a bow. The object's specific position, probably connected to the symbolic importance of the bow in the mysteries of Mithras, is unique not only among Mithraic reliefs but also in the surviving Mithraic evidence from the Roman world. The other reliefs from Etruria are analysed, with a brief description of the type of iconography, the chronology and archaeological context of each piece. Comparing the reliefs allows us to pinpoint differences in size, style and chronology, highlighting the uniqueness of the new relief from Veii. These differences can be put down to factors that are yet to be examined in more detail, connected to the clients and the workshops operating in the region. The study concludes that the Veii relief can be considered not only the oldest and most stylistically refined of these pieces, but also one of the earliest attestations of the cult of Mithras in Etruria.
Authors:L. Aubry, C. Benech, E. Marmet, and A. Hesse
Our times are characterized by an increasing need for prospection particularly within the context of rescue archaeology. Geophysics has an important part to play due to its ability to identify some well defined targets as well as to investigate large areas. Several recent surveys, using carefully selected methods chosen in accordance with the type of expected remain or a combination of methods in order to refine or confirm the interpretation, have demonstrated the expertise of several organisations in a wide variety of archaeological contexts. However, important improvements are still to be expected from the laboratories. Our team, working within the framework of three dissertations, is investigating several original subjects, for which the initial results are presented and discussed here: (1) The use of magnetic susceptibility measurements on wide mesh grids in order to survey extensive areas immediately prior to their occupation or destruction by large modern equipment; (2) Experiments to test a new survey device (Slingram - CS150) able to measure the magnetic susceptibility of the ground; (3) Interpretation of a series of geophysical measurements integrated with other types of data into a G.I.S.
Authors:A. Seelenfreund, J. Miranda, M.I. Dinator, and J.R. Morales
A study of provenance of obsidian artifacts from "site 25-Las Estacas", Quebrada de Jorquera (Copiapó, Northern Chile) was carried out by means of X-ray fluorescence, using radioactive sources. Obsidian samples from different Chilean geological regions, located in South Central Chile (Laguna del Maule volcanic area, sources of La Coloradas and La Plata), "Radal Siete Tazas" and the North of Chile (Copiapó Volcano) were analyzed. The analysis was performed using 109Cd and 241Am annular excitation sources and X-ray fluorescence. This allowed the determination of Fe, Cu, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Ba concentrations on samples of ground obsidian from the aforementioned sites. The measured Rb, Sr, and Zr concentrations were used to construct discriminant diagrams, which clearly showed clustering of the samples from the different sources, and the association of the archaeological obsidian sample to the Copiapó Volcano source, which is geographically close to the site.
Az érd-ófalui Szent Mihály plébániatemplom régészeti próbafeltárására és falkutatására a templom szerkezeti megerősítéséhez és felújításához kapcsolódóan 2009 tavaszán került sor. Tanulmányunkban helyszíni kutatásunk eredményeit mutatjuk be, az ezt követő kivitelezés során előkerült részletekre szükségszerűen utalva.A kutatások nyomán megállapíthattuk, hogy az érd-ófalui plébániatemplom a középkori Érd plébániatemplomával azonosítható, melyet a török kori pusztulás után a 18. században a szentély falmaradványainak és alaprajzának megtartásával újjáépítettek.A templom északi része alatt a ma ismert legkorábbi, csak alapfalrészletekből ismert középkori templom maradványait figyelhettük meg. Ennek az épületnek a helyén a 15. század második felében nagyméretű késő gótikus templom épült. A maradványok alapján feltehetően hálóboltozatos szentélyű épület volt. Megállapíthattuk, hogy az újkorban újjáépített plébániatemplom szentélye döntően a késő gótikus alaprajzot követi, a hajó pedig nagyrészt új alaprajzzal épült fel.
Authors:Roberto Hazenfratz, Guilherme Mongeló, Casimiro Munita, and Eduardo Neves
In this work, 50 ceramic fragments from the Lago Grande and 30 from the Osvaldo archaeological site were compared to assess
elemental similarities. The aim is to perform a preliminary comparison between the sites, which are located in the central
Amazon, Brazil. The analytical technique employed to obtain the ceramics elemental composition was instrumental neutron activation
analysis (INAA). The data set obtained was explored by the multivariate statistical techniques of cluster, principal component
and discriminant analysis. The analyzed elements were: Na, Lu, U, Yb, La, Th, Cr, Cs, Sc, Fe, Eu, Ce and Hf. The results showed
the existence of at least two compositional groups for Lago Grande and Osvaldo. Each compositional group of Osvaldo archaeological
site matches with one group of Lago Grande. Correlated with the archaeological background, the results suggest commercial
or cultural exchange in the region, which is an indicative of socio-cultural interactions between those sites.