Authors:R. Godinho, H. Wolterbeek, M. Pinheiro, L. Alves, T. Verburg, and M. Freitas
The elemental microdistributions of peripheral and central parts of the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata exposed to industrial pollution were analysed, in order to better understand the elements distribution patterns in relation
to the lichen constitution, thereby increasing our knowledge on uptake and release mechanisms. Nuclear microscopy techniques
were used to visualize elemental distributions in sample transepts and associate their concentrations to sample morphology.
The distribution data of the elements studied suggests there is biological regulation of internal concentrations. Considering
thallus parts, element-specific internal translocation should be taken into account as one more factor affecting lichen “memory
The seasonal frequency of noctilucent clouds has been discussed on the basis of visual data from the Northern Hemisphere. It is shown that there is a strong dependence on the atmospheric constitution at the mesospheric level and the seasonal transition in the mesopause. Before spring transition and after autumn transition of the mesosphere at the 80 km level no NLC are observed on the Northern Hemisphere. Conversely we can conclude the same distribution for the Southern Hemisphere and the strong relation between transition periods and occurrence of NLC.
This paper discusses problems related to the incorporation of constitutional rule of law into a pluralistic legal system, primarily in post-communist Hungary. Normative pluralism was characteristic of state socialism. Is this pluralism going to shape the emerging constitution-driven law of post-communism? The paper concludes that although constitutional universalism brought a new dimension to law and in principle has helped to promote the centrality of law in the competitive world of normative orderings, it may in the long run remain an elitist tool, fundamentally ignored or circumvented by sub-legal forms of social interaction.
Generally, normative acts are passed without preambles in Germany. The federal Basic Law of 1949, like the Weimar Constitution of 1919, however, did contain a preamble, which has been modified in 1990, upon German reunification. The predominant view on that preamble minimizes its importance for the interpretation of the operative sections of the Grundgesetz. Until 1990, the only normative directive read into the preamble by the Constitutional Court was the precept of the reunification of Germany. According to most authorities on constitutional law, the introductory reference to God (nominatio or invocatio dei) has no legal connotation whatsoever.
The influence of substituents on the thermal decomposition of monomeric organic compounds was studied. For this purpose the thermal destruction of dozen or so α-amino acids of the diversified chemical constitution, among others compounds containing the second amine group, additional carboxyl group, amino acids containing hydroxyl or sulfhydryl groups and amino acids connected with five-member heterocyclic ring or existing in the form of hydrates or hydrochlorides were investigated. The analyses were performed using a derivatograph in an air atmosphere, sample sizes were from 50 to 200 mg and heating rate from 3 to 15 K min-1. It has been established that the thermal decomposition of studied compounds occurs in three stages. The temperature ranges, in which the analyzed compounds undergo thermal transformations were established. For evaluation of the thermoanalytical results an advanced multivariate data processing method, principal component analysis (PCA), was used. By this method the influence of the specific functional groups on the thermal decomposition of α-amino acids was determined. The stage of decomposition, in which the thermoanalytic data are the best correlated to the chemical constitution of the compound, is the second stage. It has also been recognized, that better discrimination among the analyzed compounds was obtained for the data set of the DTA.
The Polish Constitution adopted on 2 April 1997, for the first time after the war, contains a provision dedicated exclusively to protecting national and ethnic minorities, however without a definition of those two categories. The legislator extended the rights of national and ethnic minorities beyond those identified in the Article 35. The extension of such rights also results from international agreements. Thus far there is no statute regulating in a comprehensive and complete manner the situation of national and ethnic minorities (the Constitution does not make its adoption mandatory), the legal regulations concerning these issues are dispersed. The problem of legal definition of the national minority appeared in connection with the initiative of the formal recognition of the Union of People of Silesian Minority. Its application has been rejected by Polish courts for the reason of non-existence of such a minority and for the attempt of abuse of the electoral privilege granted to national minorities. The Supreme Court's position has been confirmed by the Chamber and then by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights. However the 2002 national census revealed a new phenomenon of the Silesian minority: 3% of the inhabitants of the region declared their affinity to Silesian nationality.
This paper outlines the current problems of the different levels of Chinese administrative reforms implemented in the first three decades from 1978–1979 to 2008–2009. The discipline of legal sinology is a relatively new scientific field in Hungary and we have adopted its methods in the research leading to this study. The first and second parts of the study are based on the grounds of the most modern historical sources on the antecedents of the reforms. The third part of this work analyses the reform of the State Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. The most important result of this process was the recognition and protection of basic human rights under the State Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. The fourth part highlights recent administrative reforms from period to period. The administrative reform included the reform of the State Council (Government of the People’s Republic of China), as a result of which the number of the staff of the State Council diminished from 51,000 to 16,700. The final part of this study introduces the reforms of Civil Law. In 1949, the Guomindang Laws (inclusive of the Civil Code) were suspended by Chinese Communists; therefore, putting the new Civil Code into force was urgently necessary. The Draft Civil Code was completed in 2004.
[Kossuth's political career], Budapest, 1977, 170-176.
For the history of Kossuth's draft constitution and its variant readings, see György Spira, Kossuth és alkotmányterve [Kossuth and his draft constitution], Budapest, 1989
Although the university system in theFRG is largely regulated by the state, the freedom of research, teaching and study guaranteed by the constitution leaves room for competition between the universities. In research, there is competition with institutions outside the universities and with the research departments of large companies. There is also severe competition for the research funds provided by the Federal Government, theDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and German trade and industry. In teaching, research projects are being carried out in order to develop criteria for the measurement of performance. This, together with a system of reporting, will facilitate comparisons and thus encourage competition. TheBMBW has contributed to these processes in teaching and research by funding projects on the development of performance criteria and by preparing legislative measures designed to promote competition.