Drought and high temperature are two major factors limiting crop production. The two stresses occur together in many regions of the world but they usually are investigated separately. Irrespective of the genotype, growth or treatment conditions, grain growth was severely reduced when wheat plants were exposed to high temperature, drought and combination of both the stresses during endosperm cell division. The extent of thermal as well as drought induced disruption of grain development, however was dependent on genotype. This structural data support the hypothesis that high temperature and drought during endosperm cell division reduces grain sink potential and subsequently mature grain mass, mainly by disrupting cell divisions in peripheral and central endosperm and thus reducing endosperm length and breadth to a considerable extent. The interaction of high temperature and drought stresses resulted in stronger reduction of pericarp thickness and endosperm size than either stress alone.
Authors:T. Ohtsuki, K. Masumoto, K. Sueki, K. Shikano, and T. Shigematsu
Fullerenes, C60 and C70, were irradiated by 8 and 10 MeV deuterons. The irradiated samples were dissolved in CS2 and filtered to remove insoluble by-products. Finally, radioactive fullerenes and products, such as fullerene dimers, trimers
labeled with13N, were isolated and detected in the liquid phase by radiochromatography. This suggests that the energy rich13N atoms successfully incorporated into the fullerene cages and that the disrupted cages reacted with neighboring cages.
Authors:Irena Vovk, Breda Simonovska, Lidija Kompan, and Mirko Prošek
The ratio of lactulose/mannitol excretion in urine after their administration is of great importance for evaluation of malabsorption and intestinal permeability disruption in some diseases. An analytical method has been developed for determination of lactulose and mannitol in urine on the same amino HPTLC plate. The method enables densitometric quantification of lactulose by use of fluorescence mode, and mannitol by use of absorption mode after detection with AgNO
Forty elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in a wide range of Australian coals and fly ash to update and extend earlier measurements. The natural radioactivity content of selected samples were analysed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and low level radiochemistry. The results indicated a marked disequilibrium of the232Th decay series in some samples while a general enrichment of210Pb in most fly ash samples disrupted the238U equilibrium.
This paper develops two stylised models of the transition economy that challenge, to some extent, the conventional approach to policy reforms. In the first model, the absence of market-oriented institutions is responsible for the occurrence of a non-cooperative equilibrium, where the amount of public services provided by the state is too low, which, in turn, adversely affects the global performance of the economy. In the second model, a benevolent government will choose a taxation level that pushes too many firms out of the market; hence global supply falls below its optimal level. In both models, disruptions specific to transitional systems lead to abnormal responses to standard fiscal policy.
Authors:Daniya Rakhmatullina, Alexander Alyabyev, Tatiana Ogorodnikova, and Anastasia Ponomareva
The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on heat production and oxygen consumption was studied in excised roots of 5-day-old wheat seedlings grown in CaCl2 solution (2.5 × 10−4 mol/L). Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), NaNO3, NaNO2 were used as NO donors. Incubation of the cut roots (wound stress) in the presence of NO donors led to the decrease of heat production and suppressed oxygen consumption. The increase of potassium (K+) ions exit was observed, pointing to the increase of the plasma membrane permeability and to the disruption of the adaptive processes development in roots in the NaNO2 presence.
Authors:T. Yoshida, T. Tanabe, A. Chen, Y. Miyashita, H. Yoshida, T. Hattori, and T. Sawasaki
The degradation and mineralization of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), one of endocrine disruptors, by g-ray irradiation were demonstrated. The degradation was enhanced by the effective energy conversion of g-rays to low-energy electrons and photons with the assistance of the interactions between g-rays and metals, which is especially in the case of high Z materials effective. Numerical simulations using EGS code supported the experimental results. Improvements of the energy conversion process are also suggested by controlling the shape of the metal and its spatial configuration in the DBP solution.
Business activities considerably affect the fate and survival of natural ecosystems as well as the life conditions of present and future generations. In the light of Hans Jonas' theory of responsibility we can state that business has a one-way, non-reciprocal duty caring for the beings affected by its functioning. To become a fully ethical enterprise, business is to be carried out in sustainable, pro-social and future enhancing ways. Doing ethical business is not a luxury of advanced societies. It is a requirement for modern business to survive in a world of large-scale ecological disruption and social disintegration.
Authors:S. Osipova, A. Permyakov, T. Mitrofanova, V. Trufanov, M. Ermakova, A. Chistyakova, and T. Pshenichnikova
For six wheat varieties with different quality it was shown that GSH-dependent protein-disulphide oxidoreductase (TPDO) increases the activity to the third week after anthesis, a period of maximum synthesis of storage proteins in wheat kernels. The study revealed a correlation between TPDO activity in maturing kernels and dough stiffness. The addition of exogenous TPDO to flour significantly increased dough extensibility (from 17 to 49% for cultivars with different quality), which implies the ability of the enzyme to disrupt SS bonds in high-molecular weight gluten polymers.