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A 2-year conservation agriculture experiment was conducted in Southern Italy on durum wheat continuous cropping. Aim of the research was to assess the durum wheat productivity and grain quality in reduced soil tillage systems, according to conservation agriculture principles. The interactions among experimental treatments and climate revealed a close relationship among grain yield, grain quality and wheat growth conditions. Specifically, conventional tillage (CT, plowing and 2 disc harrowing) showed in the 2-year period higher grain production than reduced tillage treatments, minimum (MT, 1 disc harrowing) and No tillage (NT), especially for good crop water availability (3.29 t ha–1 of grain yield in CT, 2.67 in MT and 2.54 in NT). The amount of rainfall (above the average in both years) and its distribution in the growing seasons (more regular in the first year) strongly influenced wheat-grain quality indices (11.97% of protein content in the first year and 9.82% in the second one). Also, the wheat quality resulted more sensitive to the “Year × Tillage” interaction, with differences among tillages more evident in the second year and favourable to NT and MT. Spectral vegetation indexes (NDVI and TVI) measurements at flowering, have been shown to be useful to support farmers in N-late application for improving grain wheat quality. From this experiment carried out during the conversion period and in wet years, wheat managed with CT resulted in higher grain yield and quality, while only test weight showed a significant “Year × Tillage” interaction. Further indications emerged on the need to supply additional (10–20%) seed amount at sowing and crop nitrogen fertilizer in the first transition years in reduced tillage systems compared to conventional ones.

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Bird, E. T. (1975): A look at Australian durum wheats - quality criteria and their assessment in the laboratory. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Royal Australian Chemistry Institute, Cereal Chem

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The genotype by environment (GE) interaction is a major problem in the study of quantitative traits because it complicates the interpretation of genetic experiments and makes predictions difficult. In order to quantify GE interaction effects on the grain yield of durum wheat and to determine stable genotypes, field experiments were conducted with ten genotypes for four consecutive years in two different conditions (irrigated and rainfed) in a completely randomized block design with three replications in each environment. Combined analysis of variance exhibited significant differences for the GE interaction, indicating the possibility of stable entries. The results of additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis revealed that 12% of total variability was justified by the GE interaction, which was six times more than that of genotype. Ordination techniques displayed high differences for the interaction principal components (IPC1, IPC2 and IPC3), indicating that 92.5% of the GE sum of squares was justified by AMMI1, AMMI2 and AMMI3, i.e. 4.5 times more than that explained by the linear regression model. The results of the AMMI model and biplot analysis showed two stable genotypes with high grain yield, due to general adaptability to both rainfed and irrigated conditions, and one with specific adaptation.

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Autran J.C., Galertio, G. (1989): Association between electrophoretic composition of proteins, quality parameters and agronomic attributes of durum wheat. II. Protein quality associations. J. Cereal Sci., 9

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Data for grain yield of 10 durum wheat genotypes grown in 3 environments in 2 years were used to assess the effectiveness of different stability parameters and stability levels of genotypes. Although Sham I gave the highest yield over all environments, Gediz 75 was found to be the most stable genotype in this research. None of the parameters was significantly correlated with mean yield. The Sd 2, Di and ä i 2 parameters were highly correlated with Wi 2, and the CVi and Si 2 parameters with bi. The parameters evaluated in this study were separated into two groups. The orders of adaptation performances of genotypes did not vary much, and there were no significant differences within the two groups

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): Interpreting of genotype × environment interactions for durum wheat grain yields using non-parametric methods. Euphytica , 157 , 239–251. Armion M. Interpreting of genotype × environment

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A total of 232 accessions of tetraploid species, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf., 2n=4x=28, AABB) with a widespread origin of various countries were used in this study. Their high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition was identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among all accessions analyzed, 194 were homogeneous for HMW-GS, 38 were heterogeneous, and 62 possessed unusual or new subunits. The results revealed a total of 43 alleles, including 5 at Glu-A1 and 38 at Glu-B1, resulting in 60 different allele combinations. The Glu-B1 locus displayed higher variation compared with Glu-A1. Glu-A1c (55.2%) and Glu-B1aj (17.7%) were the most frequent alleles at Glu-A1 and Glu-B1, respectively. Two allele types (“null” and 1) at the Glu-A1 locus and three allele types (7OE + 8, 14+15, 8) at the Glu-B1 locus appeared to be the common types in the 232 accessions. A total of 23 new alleles represented by unusual subunits were detected at the Glu-A1 and the Glu-B1 locus.

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Gill, K. S., Bhullar, G. S., Bhatia, A., Pannu, D. S. (1980): Combining ability in durum wheat ( Triticum durum Desf.). J. Res. (PAU) , 17 , 243–247. Pannu D. S

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) Forum, Kansas City MO, U.S.A. Dec. 2–4 2007. Haber, S., Gilbert, J., Steinberg, J., Clarke, J and Thomas, J. 2006. Resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus in durum wheat. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 28

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Autrique, E., Nachit, M.M., Monneveux, P., Tanksley, S., Sorrells, M.E. 1996. Genetic diversity of durum wheat based on RFLPs, morphophysiological traits and coefficient of parentage. Crop Sci. 36 :735

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