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Bird, E. T. (1975): A look at Australian durum wheats - quality criteria and their assessment in the laboratory. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Royal Australian Chemistry Institute, Cereal Chem

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The genotype by environment (GE) interaction is a major problem in the study of quantitative traits because it complicates the interpretation of genetic experiments and makes predictions difficult. In order to quantify GE interaction effects on the grain yield of durum wheat and to determine stable genotypes, field experiments were conducted with ten genotypes for four consecutive years in two different conditions (irrigated and rainfed) in a completely randomized block design with three replications in each environment. Combined analysis of variance exhibited significant differences for the GE interaction, indicating the possibility of stable entries. The results of additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis revealed that 12% of total variability was justified by the GE interaction, which was six times more than that of genotype. Ordination techniques displayed high differences for the interaction principal components (IPC1, IPC2 and IPC3), indicating that 92.5% of the GE sum of squares was justified by AMMI1, AMMI2 and AMMI3, i.e. 4.5 times more than that explained by the linear regression model. The results of the AMMI model and biplot analysis showed two stable genotypes with high grain yield, due to general adaptability to both rainfed and irrigated conditions, and one with specific adaptation.

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Autran J.C., Galertio, G. (1989): Association between electrophoretic composition of proteins, quality parameters and agronomic attributes of durum wheat. II. Protein quality associations. J. Cereal Sci., 9

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Data for grain yield of 10 durum wheat genotypes grown in 3 environments in 2 years were used to assess the effectiveness of different stability parameters and stability levels of genotypes. Although Sham I gave the highest yield over all environments, Gediz 75 was found to be the most stable genotype in this research. None of the parameters was significantly correlated with mean yield. The Sd 2, Di and ä i 2 parameters were highly correlated with Wi 2, and the CVi and Si 2 parameters with bi. The parameters evaluated in this study were separated into two groups. The orders of adaptation performances of genotypes did not vary much, and there were no significant differences within the two groups

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): Interpreting of genotype × environment interactions for durum wheat grain yields using non-parametric methods. Euphytica , 157 , 239–251. Armion M. Interpreting of genotype × environment

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A total of 232 accessions of tetraploid species, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf., 2n=4x=28, AABB) with a widespread origin of various countries were used in this study. Their high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition was identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among all accessions analyzed, 194 were homogeneous for HMW-GS, 38 were heterogeneous, and 62 possessed unusual or new subunits. The results revealed a total of 43 alleles, including 5 at Glu-A1 and 38 at Glu-B1, resulting in 60 different allele combinations. The Glu-B1 locus displayed higher variation compared with Glu-A1. Glu-A1c (55.2%) and Glu-B1aj (17.7%) were the most frequent alleles at Glu-A1 and Glu-B1, respectively. Two allele types (“null” and 1) at the Glu-A1 locus and three allele types (7OE + 8, 14+15, 8) at the Glu-B1 locus appeared to be the common types in the 232 accessions. A total of 23 new alleles represented by unusual subunits were detected at the Glu-A1 and the Glu-B1 locus.

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Gill, K. S., Bhullar, G. S., Bhatia, A., Pannu, D. S. (1980): Combining ability in durum wheat ( Triticum durum Desf.). J. Res. (PAU) , 17 , 243–247. Pannu D. S

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) Forum, Kansas City MO, U.S.A. Dec. 2–4 2007. Haber, S., Gilbert, J., Steinberg, J., Clarke, J and Thomas, J. 2006. Resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus in durum wheat. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 28

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Autrique, E., Nachit, M.M., Monneveux, P., Tanksley, S., Sorrells, M.E. 1996. Genetic diversity of durum wheat based on RFLPs, morphophysiological traits and coefficient of parentage. Crop Sci. 36 :735

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Wheat endosperm storage proteins are the major components of gluten. They play an important role in dough properties and in bread making quality in various wheat varieties. In the present study, the different alleles encoded at the 5 glutenin loci were identified from a set of 38 tetraploid wheat germplasm obtained from interspecific crosses between durum wheats (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) and their relatives (T. dicoccum Schübl. and T. polonicum L.) using SDS-PAGE. At Glu-A1 and Glu-B1, encoding high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), 2 and 4 alleles were observed, respectively. Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) displayed similar polymorphism, as 3, 5 and 3 alleles were identified at loci Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-B2, respectively. One new allele was detected at Glu-B3 locus and appeared in nine accessions obtained from five crosses. This allele codes for five subunits (2 + 8 + 9 + 13 + 18), encoded by the Glu-B3b without subunit 16 plus subunits 2 and 18. A total of 38 patterns resulted from the genetic combination of the alleles encoding at the five glutenin loci. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variation in Glu-1, Glu-3 and Glu-B2 loci (0.54). The germplasm analyzed exhibited allelic variation in HMW and LMW glutenin subunit composition and the variation differed from that of tetraploid wheats of other countries. The presence of high quality alleles in glutenin loci have led the accessions to be considered as an asset in breeding programs aimed for wheat quality.

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