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Lucanus epikus technikájának jellemző jegye az istenapparátus hiánya. A jelenség magyarázatára az utóbbi bő évszázadban számos magyarázat született. Egy részük nem annyira az istenapparátus hiányáról beszél, mint inkább arról, hogy a költő az epikus narratíva e transzcendens aspektusát a hagyományos istenek helyett a teljesen személytelen fatum mal s a hol filozófikusan (fortuna), hol mintegy istenségként felfogott Fortuná val helyettesíti. A modern elméletek már Lucanus költői látásmódjának újszerűségével magyarázzák a jelenséget. Az istenapparátus hiánya azonban csak egyike azon tüneteknek, melyeknek mindegyike jól magyarázható a szónoki munkamódszerrel, a retorikai narratio szabályainak követésével.

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Nonkonformisten

Griechen bei Archelaos in Makedonien

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: Heinrich Kuch

Archelaus, King of Macedonia, proved to admire Greek culture by inviting some distinguished authors and artists to live at his Court. They were the Athenian tragedians Euripides and Agathon, the poet and musician Timotheus of Miletus, the epic poet Choerilus of Samos and the painter Zeuxis of Heraclea, and it is possible that Thucydides, the historian, belonged to them, too. The Greek guests who did not seem to comply with the established standards of the contemporaneous art and life excelled at creating new forms and ideas. Without being a coherent group they were highly inspiring individuals. Each of them succeeded in promoting the literary or artistic field. Due to the generosity of their Macedonian host the Greek emigrants, far away from the struggles of the Peloponnesian War, were able to enjoy a safe and apparently prolific stay — evident above all from the Euripidean Iphigeneia in Aulis and the Bacchae.

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Ovid’s representation of Orpheus is strictly related to Virgil’s texts. A wide range of studies have proved so far that the 10 th book of Metamorphoses follows the Georgics as far as narrative structure and use of vocabulary are concerned. Nevertheless it has been omitted, that Ovid’s work contains a number of patterns derived not from the Georgics but the Eclogues . Important textual parallelisms — such as Orpheus as being the representative of the elegy in contrast to epic, recusatio, the descent into the nether world, the motif of mourning nature, Hyacinthus, Adonis et Eurydice, the problem of a poet’s immortality, the mourning nature — attest that both Virgil’s and Ovid’s view of Orpheus is rooted in Epitaphios Bionos consequently this work is one of the most significant literary sources of both texts.

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All three descriptions of dawn in Statius’ Achilleid (1. 242–5; 1. 819–20; 2. 1–4) are tightly connected to the “metamorphoses” of Achilles in the poem. These passages also recall the dawn opening Iliad 19, and the Homeric system of metaphors and symbols comparing the hero’s return to battle to the arrival of light and dawn. A particularly complex connection between Achilles’ exposure and the sunrise is established in the third Statian passage under discussion, which can also be interpreted as a possible prediction of Achilles’ future as an epic and elegiac hero. The genitor coruscae lucis mentioned in this passage can be identified as Iuppiter/Diespiter; as a consequence, the description sheds some light on the god’s role in the Achilleid as well.

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Abstract  

What happens when we consider “poetics,” a term and concept well-known from Aristotle’s philosophical treatment of Greek epic and tragic drama, in the larger context of world literature as we understand it today? What would be the essential elements in the definition of poetics? What sort of critical issues it can address, and what resources it may draw on in the world’s various literary traditions? In the ancient world, East Asia and South Asia all have distinct traditions of literary expression with emphasis and critical conceptualizations rather different from those of the Greek-Roman tradition. What would the consideration of poetics in a broad cross-cultural perspective lead us to? In this presentation, these are the theoretical issues to be explored to arrive at a better understanding of poetics not only in the Western tradition, but truly of the world, with the richness of content and critical functions considered with relation to a global concept of world literature.

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Abstract  

Dante’s Commedia and Goethe’s Faust, two classics of World literature seem worlds apart. One is a medieval work with deep religious connotations and an obsolete poetics, while the other is a modern epic that deals with the predicament of the individual at the dawn of a new technological and capitalist era. Yet, these differences are essentially historical and do not affect the way in which both works communicate as poetic representations. At this level, in fact, they are very much comparable, as I will try to show. These two works have in common not only the fundamental theme of the “quest for knowledge”, but they also share what is necessarily and inevitably the representational mode of any great poetic work: the mode of allegory.

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Abstract

Albasty is one of the most commonly known malevolent beings among Turkic peoples from the Altay Mountains via the Caucasus and up as far as the Volga River. This article focuses on Turkic data from the Volga region (Chuvash, Tartar, Bashkir) and the Eurasian Steppe (Kazak, Kyrgyz, Nogay, Uzbek). Various areas can be ascertained on the basis of verbal charms and folk-belief narratives. On the Eurasian Steppe, for example, Albasty was first and foremost a puerperal demon. In this territory, specialists (kuuču) were called in to keep away or oust the demon at birth. Many recorded legends and memorates concern healing methods and the process of becoming a healer. In contrast, epic texts or narratives are rarer,in the Volga region, yet there are certain verbal incantations against the Albasty, which here is rather a push or disease demon.

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A 3. szatíra Iuvenalis életművének egyik legtöbbre tartott, egyben legkülönlegesebb darabja. Egy rövid bevezető után a mű csaknem egészét egy Umbriciusnak nevezett interlocutor monológja tölti ki, melyben megindokolja, hogy miért költözik Cumae-ba Rómából. Umbricius más iuvenalisi interlocutorokhoz képest jóval összetettebb alak, akinek különböző vonásait különböző forrásokra és ihletőkre vezethetjük vissza, s ez áttételesen a 3. szatíra egészére is igaz, mert benne az epikus hagyomány, a bukolikus költészet és Martialis hatása egyaránt jelentős.

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Iuvenalis 4. szatírája az életmű egyik legtöbbet kritizált darabja. A szerkezeti problémák miatt egyes kutatók a mű eredeti egységességét is kétségbe vonják azt feltételezve, hogy két, egy későbbi kiadó által összefércelt töredékből áll. A struktúra megértésének kulcsa a két fő szerkezeti egység, s ezzel együtt a két központi karakter, Crispinus és Domitianus közötti kapcsolat feltárása. Az alábbi tanulmány a szerkezeti problémák mellett a mű epikus jellegzetességeivel, illetve az invektíva célpontjaival foglalkozik.

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The article investigates the uses of the motif of the Warrior Women in János Arany’s epic poetry. The author of the article claims that the motif of the Warrior Women in Arany’s poetical discourse stemmed from the romantic literary tradition of the 1820–1830s. Furthermore, she argues that an old Scottish ballad, purportedly known by János Arany, provided the pattern that had been imitated by the Hungarian poet. Hence, the romantic image of the Hungarian Warrior Woman has become a highly symbolic and propagandistic content in Arany’s poetry during the 1850s. It reveals a genuine nineteenth-century endeavour of the nation-building process in order to promote the nation’s ready-to-fight patriotic women as models to be followed.

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