Authors:K. Takács, E. Némedi, D. Márta, É. Gelencsér, and E. Kovács
Yellow pea flour contains very low quantity of prolamins, thus it could be a good alternative dietary source for individuals suffering from celiac disease or wheat allergy. Beside emulsifiers, enzymes can be used for developing noodle structure with high quality. Transglutaminase (TG) enzyme was tested in model systems for improving noodle structure by using beneficial cross-linking property of the enzyme. Sensory-and cooking properties and biochemical attributes of proteins were evaluated to characterize structure-function relationships in accordance with the concentration of the applied enzyme. The amount of water and salt soluble protein fractions was reduced meaningfully and the molecular weight distributions assessed by SDS PAGE were changed by addition of 50–200 mg kg
TG enzyme. At the same time, sensory properties were improved and high water uptake and low cooking loss were also observed. Forasmuch an increase has been expected in the amount of the cross-linked molecules, the cross-reactivity of prolamins with anti-gliadin antibody was also tested to reduce the risk related to gluten sensitivity. Finally, the possible contamination with wheat was controlled by DNA-based PCR.
Authors:Hee-Soo Kim, Byoung-Ho Lee, Sena Lee, Hyun-Joong Kim, and John R. Dorgan
]. Bamboo flour (BF) and wood flour (WF) have been used as reinforcing fillers in biodegradable polymer biocomposites. These fillers are completely biodegradable when used as natural flour in a wide range of environments. In particular, bamboo fiber and
Authors:Lucia Odochian, Viorica Dulman, M. Dumitraş, and A. Pui
The study is devoted to the characterization by both TG-DTG analysis and FTIR spectroscopy of beech flour, dyes and the sorbent-dyes
products obtained through retention of the dyes from aqueous solution on the beech flour, to the aim of obtaining information
on the nature of dyes’ retention, thermal behavior of the sorbent-dye materials as well as on their possible upgrading as
Thermal analysis led to the conclusion that the mechanism of thermo-oxidative degradation is specific and the retention of
dyes occurs on cellulose from beech flour. The nature of the bonds involved in dyes’ retention is also investigated by FTIR
analysis, which evidences that dyes retention on cellulose is realized through hydrogen bonding between the NH and, respectively,
OH groups from dye molecule and the oxygen atoms from cellulose. Involvement of the non-participating electrons of the nitrogen
and, respectively, oxygen atoms of these groups in the extended electronic conjugation with aromatic nuclei strongly influences
the capacity of the amino and, respectively, hydroxyl groups of forming hydrogen bonds, thus achieving dyes fixation on the
sorbent. DTA analysis led to the conclusion that an improvement in the quality of the sorbent-dye materials as fuels is possible,
as compared to untreated beach flour, as a result of the modification of the cellulosic fibers in the process of dyes retention.
Authors:I. Szedljak, K. Szántainé Kőhegyi, and M. Tóth
Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is more resistant to climatic and soil conditions but the yields are lower than in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), therefore its cultivation was given up for decades in Hungary. Millet is a suitable raw material for the production of pasta products without using eggs and it has other advantageous physiological effects, therefore its cultivation in Hungary is expected again. Millet is a gluten free cereal so it is not able to create viscoelastic protein network. During the biochemical studies the activity of enzymes (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase) influencing the colour of the flour, flour mixtures (T. aestivum L., Triticum durum L., P. miliaceum L.), and pasta products were examined. Oxidoreductases in wheat flour have always been of interest to cereal chemists. The effects of peroxidase (EC 184.108.40.206) (POX) are much less thoroughly documented, although they are reported to have a relatively high level of activity in different flours. These days there are also insufficient research data on how the millet in dry pasta modifies the enzyme activity and the storage stability and shelf life of dry pasta products.
The potential effect of combined salicylic acid and fish flour to improve plant tolerance to salt stress was investigated. This pre-treatment improved the growth of wheat seedlings under salinity when compared to control (untreated wheat seedlings). Moreover, combined pre-treatment improved significantly phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (POD) enzyme activities, also phenolic-flavonoid content in the shoots of salt stressed seedlings. One of the most important consequences of increase in salt stress is the oxidative tissue damage. In our study, salt stress increased lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) and also the loss of chlorophylls levels during stress might also be related to photo-oxidation resulting from oxidative stress. Whereas phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities of wheat shoots increased by a 2.1-fold under salt stress, the activities of shoots grown from seeds primed with salicylic acid and fish flour (SA + FF) increased by a 4-fold for 0.05 mM SA + FF, 4.8- fold for 0.1 mM SA + FF and 3.7-fold for 2.5 mM SA + FF combined pre-treatment under salt stress. Also, the combined salicylic acid + fish flour primed seedlings showed higher content of the scopoletin, and salicylic, syringic, vanilic and gallic acids under both salt and nonsalinity stress conditions.
Authors:M. Rakszegi, G. Balázs, F. Békés, A. Harasztos, A. Kovács, L. Láng, Z. Bedő, and S. Tömösközi
Damaged starch, protein and arabinoxylan (AX) content and composition have been related to water absorption (WA) in a large set of samples. We tested 20 modern bread wheat cultivars bred in Hungary, 20 old Hungarian landraces, and 17 cultivars with special biochemical/functional characteristics from all around the world, this last set for international comparison. Grain was field grown in the 2011 and 2012 harvest seasons. Alinear mathematical model has been developed to estimate WA from protein content, starch damage, AX content and the relative amount of soluble proteins with strong correlation (r2 = 0.65) between measured and estimated data. The introduction of a new parameter, related to the cultivar dependent quantitative composition of soluble proteins and determined by lab-on-a-chip (LOC) analysis, largely improved the predictability of WA. Based on the large variation among the level of AX and certain soluble protein components in wheat flour and their significant contribution toWA determination, it was concluded, that these properties could be appropriate target traits to alter them during wheat breeding programs to improve the WA of wheat flour.
To elucidate the physiological mechanism of salt stress mitigated by cinnamic acid (CA) and fish flour (FF) pretreatment, wheat was pretreated with 20, 50 and 100 ppm CA and 1 g/10 mL FF for 2 d and was then cultivated. We investigated whether exogenous CA + FF could protect wheat from salt stress and examined whether the protective effect was associated with the regulation of seed vigor, antioxidant defense systems, phenolic biosynthesis and lipid peroxidation. At 2 days exogenous CA did not influence seed vigor. Salt stress increased the phenolic biosynthesis, but the CA + FF-combined pretreatment enhanced the phenolic biosynthesis even more under salt stress and decreased lipid peroxidation to some extent, enhancing the tolerance of wheat to salt stress.
A gabonafélék táplálkozásunkban fontos szerepet töltenek be, ezáltal hozzájárulnak többek között napi ásványianyag- és fehérjefelvételünkhöz. Jelen dolgozat egyik célja volt annak vizsgálata, hogy hogyan változik az ásványianyag- és fehérjetartalom a búza termésében az eltérő termőhelyek hatására. Ennek során megfigyeltük a K, P, S, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Sr és a fehérje mennyiségi alakulását az egységes Országos Műtrágyázási Tartamkísérletek (OMTK) öt kísérleti helyéről (Karcag, Kompolt, Iregszemcse, Nagyhörcsök és Putnok) származó búzaszem- és lisztmintákban, majd összehasonlítottuk a kapott eredményeket. Ezek a termőhelyek eltérő klimatikus viszonyokkal, és különböző talajtípusokkal rendelkeznek. A mintavétel 2005-ben történt, amely csapadékos év volt. A minták elemtartalmának meghatározása induktív csatolású plazma tömegspektrométerrel történt. A méréseket a minták oldatba vitele előzte meg HNO3-H2O2-os nedves roncsolás formájában. A fehérjetartalmat Khjeldal módszerrel határoztuk meg. A kezelések hatásának szignifikanciáját SPSS for Windows 13.0 segítségével, egytényezős varianciaanalízissel (One-Way ANOVA) állapítottuk meg, a post hoc analízis során Duncantesztet alkalmaztunk. A statisztikai analízis eredménye szerint az eltérő termőhelyekről származó teljes szemminták K-, P-, S-, Mg-, Ca-, Fe-, Mn-, Zn-, Cu-, Sr- és fehérjetartalmuk tekintetében egymástól szignifikánsan elkülönültek (P<0,05), viszont a belőlük készült lisztek S-, Fe- és Sr-koncentrációja között nem találtunk szignifikáns különbséget. Az ásványi alkotók mennyisége a teljes szemben minden elem esetében többszöröse volt a lisztekének, így a mag 2,5-szer annyi (252%) káliumot, háromszor annyi foszfort és kalciumot (299%), közel 1,5-szer annyi (141%) ként, körülbelül ötszörös mennyiségű magnéziumot (492%), vasat (504%) és mangánt (486%), több mint négyszer annyi cinket (435%), 2,5-szer több (247%) rezet és 5,5-szer annyi (546%) stronciumot tartalmazott, mint a lisztek, továbbá a teljes szemben a fehérjetartalom közel 1,5-szerese (144%) volt a lisztekének.A munkát a KTIA_AIK_12-1-2012-0012 számú projekt is támogatta.
Authors:M.A. Elfattah, R.M. Elsanhoty, M.F. Ramadan, and M.O. Osman
The main objective of this work was to evaluate the composition, nutritional, physical and rheological properties of wheat flour and dough from genetically modified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Hi-Line 111 (GMW) compared to conventional wheat (non-GMW). Analyses were conducted to measure the proximate chemical composition with references to 18 components including total solid, protein, lipids, crude fiber, ash, carbohydrate, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids. In addition, physical and rheological properties such as water absorption, arrival time, dough development time, stability value, dough weakening value, extensibility of dough, resistance to extension, and ratio of resistance/extensibility were evaluated. The results showed that there were no significant differences between GMW and non-GMW in terms of chemical composition. Results revealed the presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids wherein there were no significant differences between GMW and its counterpart in the levels of fatty acids. In addition, there were no significant differences on the levels of amino acids. In addition, there were no significant differences between the GMW and non-GMW in the physical and rheological properties. From these results, it can be concluded that GMW Hi-Line 111 is confirmed to have nearly the composition and rheological properties as non-GMW.