Authors:János Kállai, Sándor Rózsa, Zsuzsanna Kerekes, Rita Hargitai, and Anikó Osváth
properties of the French version of the BIS/BAS scales and the SPSRQ. Personality and IndividualDifferences , 42: 987–998.
Carver, C. S., White, T. L. (1994): Behavioral Inhibition, Behavioral Activation, and Affective Responses
Authors:Enikő Kubinyi, Samuel Gosling, and Ádám Miklósi
The aim of the present study was to examine the links between independent rating and coding approaches to assessing activity-impulsivity and inattention in dogs. Fifty-six adult Belgian shepherd dogs were videotaped performing in behavioural tests. Seventeen behavioural variables were measured by coders (video coding). Raters watched the same videotapes and then rated the activity-impulsivity and inattention of each dog (video rating). Owners filled out the Dog ADHS-RS questionnaire measuring activity-impulsivity and inattention. Video rating of activity-impulsivity correlated with the scale scores of the owner, but video codings did not. The results suggest that the owner ratings and video ratings are tapping the same constructs, but behavioural variables assessed in the present study were not appropriate for mirroring the owners’ assessments. The findings suggest that if consistent individual differences in broad behavioural traits are the primary focus of analyses, then ratings seem to capture information not easily captured in coding approaches designed to assess the same constructs.
In translation process
and language production research, pauses are seen as indicators of cognitive
processing. Investigating the correlations between source text machine
translatability and post-editing effort involves an assessment of cognitive
effort. Therefore, an analysis of pauses is essential. This paper presents data
from a research project which includes an analysis of pauses in post-editing,
triangulated with the Choice Network Analysis method and Translog. Results
suggest that the pause-to-keyboarding ratio does not differ significantly for
sentences deemed to be more suitable for machine translation than for those
deemed to be less suitable. Also, results confirm the finding in research
elsewhere that pause duration and frequency is subject to individual
differences. Finally, we suggest that while pauses provide some indication of
cognitive processing, supplementary methods are required to give a fuller
Relationships between age and scholarly impact were assessed by determining the number of times single-author articles (N=227) published inPsychological Review between 1965 and 1980 were cited in the fifth year following publication. There were substantial individual differences in citation rates, but this measure of scholarly impact did not correlate with either the chronological age of authors or their professional age (years since PhD award). Although the majority of articles inPsychological Review were published by authors under the age of 40, such a bias is to be expected in terms of the age distribution of American psychologists. When allowance was made for the number of authors in different age ranges, older authors were no less likely than younger authors to have generated a high-impact article (an article cited 10 or more times in the fifth year after publication). The data offer no support to claims that publications by young scientists have greater impact.
During natural ageing, hormonal, psychological, and cognitive changes affect speech production and speech perception. The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in the performance of young-old (60- to 74-year-old) versus old-old (75- to 90-year-old) speakers in oral summaries of stories to which they listened previously and how those results relate to the speech of young adult speakers. For the present study, we have selected narrative recalls performed by fifteen subjects of each age group from BEA (The Hungarian Spontaneous Speech Database). We analysed the contents of those samples, pauses, disfluencies, and speech errors. We found important differences in the oral summaries between young-old and old-old speakers. Considerable individual differences were also attested within each age group (in disfluencies, pauses, etc.). The results suggest a certain degree of dissimilarity in the recalls across age groups, concerning peculiarities of language use along with the expected phonetic and psycholinguistic features.
Authors:Kornelia N. Balogh, Linda C. Mayes, and Marc N. Potenza
Decision-making and risk-taking behavior undergo developmental changes during adolescence. Disadvantageous decision-making and increased risk-taking may lead to problematic behaviors such as substance use and abuse, pathological gambling and excessive internet use.
Based on MEDLINE searches, this article reviews the literature on decision-making and risk-taking and their relationships to addiction vulnerability in youth.
Decision-making and risk-taking behaviors involve brain areas that undergo developmental changes during puberty and young adulthood. Individual differences and peer pressure also relate importantly to decision-making and risk-taking.
Brain-based changes in emotional, motivational and cognitive processing may underlie risk-taking and decision-making propensities in adolescence, making this period a time of heightened vulnerability for engagement in addictive behaviors.