Authors:Nilgün Gültiken, Murat Yarim, Gül Fatma Yarim, Mahmut Sözmen, Elvan Anadol, and Murat Findik
., 2002 ). There are two forms of insulin-like growth factor (IGF): insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) ( Rinderknecht and Humbel, 1978; Engström et al., 1998 ). The former is expressed after birth and is produced
Authors:Z.K. Xie, S.Y. Yu, M. He, S.X. Yu, H.F. Xiao, and Y.D. Song
-glucosidase, which restricts intestinal glucose absorption ( Hou et al., 2009 ), and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which is a key factor in the negative regulation of the insulin pathway and a promising target for the treatment of DM and obesity ( Zhang et al
In this article we studied the dynamic dissociation constant (kd) of 99Mo complexed with insulin molecule at various pH. The kd values were determined by dialysis technique against deionised water. The T1/2 of the molybdenum–insulin complexes were found to be 6.41, 5.25 and 3.5 h at pH 5, 6 and 7 respectively. The half-lives indicate
that insulin may act as good carrier of 99Mo to the intestine and may be useful in the field of nuclear medicine.
Authors:A. Jalilian, J. Garousi, M. Akhlaghi, and P. Rowshanfarzad
In order to target insulin receptors in various diabetic and insulinoma conditions, human recombinant insulin was successively
labeled with [111In]-indium chloride after conjugation with freshly prepared cyclic DTPA-dianhydride (ccDTPA). The best results of the conjugation
were obtained by addition of 0.5 mL of an insulin pharmaceutical solution (5 mg/mL, in phosphate buffer, pH 8) to a glass
tube pre-coated with DTPA-dianhydride (0.01 mg) at 25 °C with continuous mild stirring for 30 minutes. Radio-thin layer chromatography
(RTLC), instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have shown an overall radiochemical
purity of higher than 93% at optimized conditions (specific activity = 550–750 MBq/mg, radiochemical yield =81%). The white
blood cell labeling capacity of the tracer was determined up to 4 hours at 37 °C. Preliminary in vivo studies in normal rat
model was performed to determine the biodistribution of the radiotracer up to 48 hours. It showed a high liver and spleen
uptake of the tracer which is consistent with other reported radiolabeled insulins. SPECT images have also shown high liver
accumulation of the tracer.
Authors:Anna Ptak, Ewa L. Gregoraszczuk, and J. Rząsa
Apa, R., Di Simone, N., Ronsisvalle, E., Miceli, F., de Feo, D., Caruso, A., Lazone, A. and Mancuso, S. 1996: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II stimulate progesterone production by human luteal cells
Authors:Ning Liu, Yuanyou Yang, Liangbiao Zan, Jiali Liao, and Jiannan Jin
A first attempt to label insulin, a small protein with significant affinity to tumors with the α-emitter 211At was performed by an indirect method using N-succinimidyl 5-(tributylstannyl)-3-pyridinecarboxylate (SPC) as a bi-functional
linker, and the stability of the conjugated insulin (211At-insulin) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SPC was synthesized by using 5-bromonicotinic acid as the starting material.
With this bi-functional linker, insulin was conjugated with 211At in a labeling yield of 30–40%, with radiochemical purity of more than 98%. After 24 hours at room temperature, the radiochemical
purity was still more than 95%, implying that 211At-insulin is fairly stable in vitro. Biodistribution of 211At-insulin was investigated in NIH strain mice. 211At accumulated rapidly in the liver post injection, with the maximum uptake of 4.29%I.D/g at 30 minutes, and was mainly excreted
by kidney. More importantly, 211At-insulin uptake in some key organs or tissues, especially in thyriod, stomach, lung and spleen, was much less than that
of free astatide (211At−). This result indicated that 211At-insulin has considerable stability in vivo as well as in vitro.