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This article presents the findings of the first part of a research project on the Western canon and Israeli active cultural memory in the Digital Era. The article focuses on the methodological problems of mapping a national cultural memory from the angle of the use it makes of Western literary heritage. The detailed description of the mapping process—beginning with the construction of an initial list of relevant canonic texts and ending with the validation of three cultural “memes” (Don Quixote’s tilting the windmills, Hamlet’s contemplation of suicide, and Romeo and Juliet as the ultimate lovers) as the most appropriate matter for constructing multimedia hypertext educational threads, touches upon many aspects of Intertextuality and Cultural memory theories, and the positive and negative aspects of the Internet with respect to both.

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There Is no Mercy

In memoriam Sándor Loss

Acta Juridica Hungarica
Author: István H. Szilágyi

). Magyar , E. , Kezdő bűnözők kézikönyve [A Handbook for Beginner Criminals] ( BBS-Info Kft 2001 ). Nagy , T. , ‘Law, Literature and Intertextuality’ ( 2012

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The aim of this paper is to discover common topics, motifs and intertextual references in Blok’s and Hoffmann’s works, which throw some light on common points in the two writers’ artistic systems and views of the world. Such moments are, for instance, musicality in relation to the beloved woman’s figure and the idea of panmusicality as well as the depiction of the demonic power of music and the protagonist’s inner conflicts; understanding the process of creation in a way resembling a transition through the realm of the dark tracing a ray of light in the sky; the problem of the artist’s and petty bourgeois’s antinomy; common points in elaborating the ‘Don Juan’ theme; means of destructing irony and illusion; and certain motifs (circle, puppet, etc.). Though Blok only rarely mentioned Hoffmann in his writings, it can be stated that he must have known the German artist’s works well as their poetics and views of the world share a number of common features.

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The primary thesis of this paper is that, contrary to popular views, the translation of proper names is a non-trivial question, closely related to the problem of the meaning of the proper name. It aims to show what happens to proper names in the process of translation, particularly from English into Hungarian, to systematise and, within the frames of relevance theory, to explain the phenomena in question. It is suggested that in translating a proper name translators have four basic operations at their disposal: transference, translation proper, substitution and modification, which are defined here and explained in relevance-theoretic terms. The paper presents two case studies, which attempt to explain the treatment of proper names in the Hungarian translations of Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse-Five and J. F. Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans. The analysis is based on the assumption that translation is a special form of communication, aimed at establishing interpretive resemblance between the source text and the target text, governed by the principle of optimal resemblance (Sperber and Wilson 1986; Gutt 1991). The findings seem to confirm the claim that proper names behave in a largely predictable way in translation: the particular operations chosen to deal with them are a function, partly, of the semantic content they are loaded with in the source context and, partly, of considerations of how this content may be preserved in the target communication situation, including elements like the specific audience, intertextual relationships and translation norms, in consistency with the principle of relevance.

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France Prešeren made the sonnet fashionable in Slovenian literature as a representative poetic form and at the same time he revived it as a storehouse of cultural functions the influence of which could be felt up to postmodernism. Prešeren armed with the aesthetic postulate of the Schlegel brothers considered the sonnet a poetical form capable of cultivating the Slovenian poetical language and in this way raising it to the canons of clas-sical and modern literature. In the time of Romanticism poetics belonged to the fundamental values and therefore became an integral part in discussions concerning the questions of poetic creation. Prešeren wrote a lot of poems whose main topic is self-reflexion, eg. his sonnets with the most important one in them: The Wreath of Sonnets. Prešeren in these sonnets grouped the contexts, goals, structures and situations pointing out their critical reception, highlighting his own modern Petrarcism. He gave reasons for his choice of style, topic and language, showed the difference between pragmatic and poetic manifestation, revealed the common roots of his personal life and his poems (making a clearcut difference between the biographical and poetical ego) mythicized his own poetic and national mission. Finally we outline the developing stages of Prešeren's autoreflexive sonnets connected with him in an intertextual way in the time of modernism and postmodernism.

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Harms's case "The Blue Notebook No 10", which is a cisfinite miniature about the infinity of human non-existence, is seen by the author as an a-rational (IT = NON/IT) creative inovation: the defictionalisation of the narrative convention of the character, up to the point of cisfinite zero.      Particular attention is drawn to the polemical intertextual "collisions" (The OBERIU Declaration) of Harms's reddish-brown man with a canonized pattern of the classic Russian realistic (and socrealistic) characterisation (the 'outer' and the 'inner portrait'; procedures, actions). Simultaneously, the 'demimesis' of the reddish-brown man destroys the traditional mimetic model of character structuralisation of the European romanesque production. Naturally, with a strong emphasis on the realistic model, which has already become an object of destruction - in the dadadistic avant-garde palimpsests (poeme simultane, dadaistic collage and photomontage, ready-made) as in the romanesque fiction of, for example, F. Kaf-ka, J. Joyce, W. Faulkner, J. P. Sartre, A. Camus.         As the defictionalisation of the character the universal epic literary convention in "The Blue Notebook No 10" becomes metapoetic DEFICTION/DEMIMESIS of the character as described by Aristotle in his Poetics.

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This paper intends to present the innovation of stream of consciousness techniques by Sasha Sokolov in School for idiots within the theory of post-structuralism, William James' concept of “consciousness” and the aspects of fictionality. The main stress is laid on how radically Sasha Sokolov renewed a special end of the 19th-first half of the 20th century novel tradition marked by Lewis Carroll, Dujardin, Proust, James Joyce, Faulkner, Vaginov. This article undertakes to demonstrate that Sasha Sokolov in 1970 took with his new concept of the deviant personality and intertextualism a step towards the postmodern, thereby considerably contributing to wind up normative restrictions then reigning soviet belles-lettres. In the narrator's free schizophrenic act of speech, fighting for freedom against the power of persons in control, where the distance between presentation and representation is apparently abolished, strained relations between speaking and writing are created. There is no author's intention which could direct the reception. Past, present and future, imagination and “reality” (within the scope of fiction), life and death are perceived to be reciprocally exchangeable. But despite this discursive way of “showing” the ill boy's inner world, a considerable composing attitude prevails in the text, which is established by the exact mythological and quotational structure, made up mainly by motifs borrowed from Hermetism, by allusions to poems of Pushkin, Hölderlin or Rilke and short stories by Gogol´ and Poe.

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Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is a text read by completely different groups of readers, and therefore it may be a tempting medium for research on interpretive communities. The paper analyses the possible strategies of elite and popular interpretations. For a typical elite strategy it uses the myth of Prometheus as interpretive subtext of the novel, while as an example of typical popular interpretation it makes use of Kenneth Branagh’s film-adaptation. The differences can be regarded as the result of loss of meaning, since the sophisticated connections that can be elaborated in a professional reading simply disappear in a popular one; but a popular reading involves not only loss, since new meanings appear through an intertextual process of popular interpretation that adapts the text to horror genre conventions more closely. Features that seem adequate to the popular genre tend to be highly emphasised, while, as a negative correlate of this very same process, features that are unfamiliar with the popular genre are simply omitted.

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This article suggests a new analysis of Jean-Paul Sartre’sQu’est-ce que la literature? (1948) by examining a densely intertextual passage in the text where Sartre associates words with sickness. By the ‘sickness” of words Sartre understands not only wartime ideological contamination of language but also modern literary expression in some of its forms. The hyperbolic statement that is, in itself, marked by wartime rhetoric includes amongst its references a satiric comment on Georges Bataille’sL’Expérience intérieure (1943). The aim of the article is to think out the association between the ideologically contaminated words and the literary words in Sartre’s post-war writings. This involves, first, an explication of what the diagnosis of words consists of, that is, how words can besick for Sartre. Second, the purpose is to investigate the ambiguity in Sartre’s statement concerning literary language. The idea of the morbidity of literary expression is another indication of Sartre’s ambivalent relation to fiction and poetry that characterized his whole career. The satiric diagnosis, therefore, is a symptom of a larger question of resistance to literature that can teach us something about the persistence of literature.

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In his famous "Statement" in 1955 Philip Larkin said: "I feel that my prime responsibility is to the experience itself." His first mature collection of poems (which can be read as an organic whole) is a demonstration of this credo, but also a manifestation of his sceptical attitude. In most poems of The Less Deceived he made efforts to preserve experience, but also had to admit at least a partial failure. The first and the last poems ("Lines on a Young Lady's Photograph Album" and "At Grass") form a frame: in both texts Larkin realizes that knowing the past of other individuals is impossible for him, therefore his experience is incomplete: it is an experience about not having an experience. Although Larkin was a central figure of the Movement, and as such, denied any kind of literary inspiration, still intertextuality enriched these poems. Some of the poems can be read as responses to other poems ("Lines on a Young Lady's Photograph Album", "Wedding Wind"), and some texts as parodies ("I Remember, I Remember", "Church Going"). In my analyses I distinguish between the real poet, the implied poet and the speaker in the poem. The speakers in most cases cannot be identified with Larkin, but through the masks he wears and the characters he constructs he represents questions about his own life strategies. The whole volume can be read as the work of a conventional poet who still responds to the questions of the postmodern age.

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