There are a number of publications on the traditional lifestyle of the Boshas in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The present survey, territorially restricted mainly to the Armenian-populated historical-ethnographical region of Javakhk (Republic of Georgia), examines the manifestations of Bosha identity at the end of the 20th century. The subjects of the survey are the folk etymology of naming, language specificities, the area inhabited, mixed marriages, occupations, anthropological characteristics, system of prestige and relationships with the neighbouring population, as well as their perceptions and notions. The author has drawn mainly on the formulations of the informants.It is concluded that the present Boshas are an ethnographical group of Armenians of a different ethnic origin and they are still in the process of cultural assimilation into the neighbouring Armenian population.
This article deals with the problem of the religion of the ethnic Germans in Hungary. It is assumed that Catholicism serves as an important item of the ethnic identity of this minority from diachronic as well as from synchronic perspective. Catholic religion has the historic function to help the ethnic survival. Religion has a very important role to divide and to unite ethnic minorities and the majority. A great deal of the Germans settled in Hungary in the 18th century is Lutheran. Catholic and Lutheran Germans are divided by their religion, which can be seen at their marriage customs, too. Since the Hungarian majority is also Catholic, both Germans and Hungarians have the cult of the Blessed Virgin, who is held by the Hungarian believers as Patrona Hungarica. With the help of a shared religion with the majority, they could develop a basis for national feelings and for assimilation, too.
This article studies the intercultural links between the Uygurs and Dunhuang in the tenth-eleventh centuries. Some of the biggest caves at Dunhuang show large-scale representations of Ganzhou Uygur brides as donors. It is argued that the marriage of a Chinese ruler of Dunhuang with the daughter of the Ganzhou Uygur kaghan acted as a catalyst for the formation of a new Sino-Uygur ruling class. A sketch and a painting from Dunhuang are examined in detail. Emphasis is on the appearance of new colours and decorative technologies such as applied gold leaf, iconography including the clothing of the figures and style, including facial features and mannerisms. It is concluded that Ganzhou Uygur brides as patrons played an important role in the formation of tenth-century Dunhuang art, and Uygur influence continued to grow in the eleventh century.
In the opening of Fasti 6, Ovid proposes different explanations for the origin of the month name June by means of a competition between three goddesses: Juno, Juventas, and Concordia. Each goddess puts forth an etymology for June that derives from her own name or individual attributions, alimenting the indecisiveness of the poet who eventually walks out of the scene unable to return a verdict. As she is depicted in this text, Juno might appear as a parodic version of the Virgilian goddess and the ideas she represents. To a close reading, however, it is evident that Juno has retained her reconciliatory function, which has allowed the Roman development, and moreover has been enriched by characteristics that look back at her ancient Italian cult and, at the same time, place her in the new Augustan reality. In particular, Ovid blends the early martial and political aspects of the goddess with her function as protectress of legitimate marriage, which seems to have been prominent in the Augustan period. In fact, Ovid emphasizes that conjugal union is the means by which Juno ends her hostility and enables further growth and development.
The book containing monk Parfenyj's pilgrimages was one of Dostojevskyj's favourites and it had also a strong influence on him especially on his style. The spirituality and religiosity of the pilgrim Makar Dolgorukyj in the novel Podrostok is just as uncommon and unusual as that of Parfenyj's in the eyes of his contemporaries. The characters understand Makar as a representation of the great gulf that exists between the common peeple1s and their religion. In our paper we show that the mother, Sophia Andrejevna represents the other side of the same idea manifesting itself in close attachment to the Church and to its rites. In our opinion Makar and Sophia on the basis of their similarity are living icons formed from love. We also point out that Versilov's unexpected destruction of the icons after Makar's death symbolizes an earlier period in his life when he destroyed Makar and Sophia's marriage disregarding it as a sacrament. The tragical schism of the old believers has its impact in the novel, shown as a gap that cannot be filled as seen in Makar's fate and his loss of belief.
Liszt followed the education of his own children through letters, but he rarely saw them while they were young. The education that Marie Sayn-Wittgenstein received in Weimar, when her mother settled there with Liszt, was completely different. The young princess was only ten years old and she read many classic and modern writers; she even translated some of them. Greek mythology had a privileged place in her education. She attended several concerts. Private teachers gave her lessons in drawing, history, and art history. She travelled with her mother to Berlin and Paris in order to visit artists’ ateliers, art galleries, and museums. Liszt gave them names and addresses of personalities to visit. Special orders of portraits sometimes followed these visits. The young princess served as a model for some of these painters. Princess Carloyne Sayn-Wittgenstein possessed a personal collection of drawings and paintings, and the young girl was encouraged to do the same. This can be seen in the letters that Liszt wrote to the young princess before her marriage.
Sposalizio, the piece opening the “Italian year” of Franz Liszt's Années de pèlerinage (first published in 1858), is one of the most analyzed and interpreted compositions in this piano cycle. Much attention has been paid to its connection with the painting of the same title by Raphael, which was printed as an internal title page for the piece's first edition at the explicit request of the composer. This connection has inspired many studies on the relationship between image and music, reinforcing the notion of Sposalizio as a musical realization of Raphael's painting as seen by Liszt for the first time in February 1838 at the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan. Adopting a critical view of the hermeneutical tradition, which has an impact on the interpretation of the piece still today, and assuming that its composition began in Weimar only around 1848, the article proposes an alternative reading of the piece. By connecting pictorial and musical elements, Sposalizio seems to evoke several cultural discourses and practices fundamental to Liszt's artistic and biographical background, such as Raphael's image as a genius, the revival of Marian devotion, and marriage as a sacrament of the Catholic Church.
Several studies have demonstrated that such factors as area of specialization, and the age, rank, years of experience and prestige background of authors affect the publication of scientific research. This study examines the impact of these variables on the probability that published articles will receive critical comment. The data for the study are based on information gathered on the authors of 477 articles and comments published in theAmerican Sociological Review over a 33 year period (1947–1979). Results show that area of specialization is a major factor influencing the probability of an article being commented on. Articles written in the areas of theory/history of social thought and quantitative methods receive a disproportionately higher percentage of comments; while articles in such areas as community, social psychology and marriage and family receive far fewer comments. None of the five demographic and prestige characteristics of article authors was found to significantly discriminate between those articles that either had or had not been commented on. And finally, journal article comments are shown to either enhance or diminish an article's likelihood of later being cited, depending upon the speciality area in which that article is written.
This paper examines the approaches to prostitution within the frame of legal norms and social life in the Ottoman Empire via the case study of a Muslim woman who was adjudged to be a prostitute at a court in 1580. Compared with similar case reports, this case study also demonstrates the struggle of a prostitute for her rights against the unjust and arbitrary practices applied by officers and common people, which allows us to think about gender mainstreaming. One of the results of this paper establishes that there are no special regulations about prostitution in Islamic Law. Although it is viewed as ‘adultery’ in Hanefi Islamic Law, prostitution is understood to be punished with light sentences since most prostitutes were not married. The severe penalties in Islamic Law were designed to prevent married women’s adultery. Upon marriage a woman grants or transfers her right of sexual intercourse to her husband and if she lets another person use that right, it is seen as allowing someone to steal her husband’s property. In the case of unmarried women and prostitutes, the fee taken is counted as a gift or other consideration. The paper attempts to explain why the concept of prostitution did not occur in Islamic Law and why it was regulated in the Ottoman Empire as a part of private life.