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disorder affecting a minority of individuals. Starcevic ( 2017 ) also appears to claim that those working in the IGD field and who conceptualize IGD as an addiction assume that persistent gaming behavior is engaged in as a way of avoiding withdrawal

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Introduction Social media is increasingly being used for communicating, learning, and collaborating, and for a small minority has become a potential problematic, compulsive, and/or addictive habit ( Kuss & Griffiths, 2017

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Introduction Gambling has become a widely viewed socially acceptable form of recreation ( Stucki & Rihs-Middel, 2007 ) and is an enjoyable and harmless activity for most individuals. However, for a small minority, severe

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, 2010 ), which in turn can lead to problematic smartphone use (PSU) among a minority of individuals. The prevalence of PSU varies between populations, but has been reported at 10% among British adolescents ( Lopez-Fernandez, Honrubia-Serrano, Freixa

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identification of adolescent exercise addiction. Exercise addiction appears to be prevalent in a minority of adolescents and emerging adults, especially among those with an eating disorder, and it is associated with negative exercise and eating attitudes

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Olatz Lopez-Fernandez, Niko Männikkö, Maria Kääriäinen, Mark D. Griffiths, and Daria J. Kuss

detrimental health effects for a small minority of users, including depression, anxiety, stress, worse mood, specific personality disorders, and low self-control ( Cheever, Rosen, Carrier, & Chavez, 2014 ; Jeong et al., 2016 ; Thomée, Härenstam, & Hagberg

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further increase to 2.73 billion by 2021 ( Statista, 2017b ). In light of these number, the minority of gamers is sizeable and of significant public health concern ( Chung et al., 2018 ). A large number of studies have concluded that excessive

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these symptoms are suffered by only a minority population ( Kuss, Griffiths, Karila, & Billieux, 2014 ), a much larger proportion of adults report high engagement with the Internet and some of the early signs of CIU (such as excessive use; Charlton

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Orsolya Király, Mark D. Griffiths, Daniel L. King, Hae-Kook Lee, Seung-Yup Lee, Fanni Bányai, Ágnes Zsila, Zsofia K. Takacs, and Zsolt Demetrovics

, similar to other highly rewarding activities, a minority of gamers pursue the activity in such an excessive manner that it leads to negative life consequences (i.e., impaired interpersonal relationships, decrease in work or educational performance

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Barbara Braun, Monika Ludwig, Pawel Sleczka, Gerhard Bühringer, and Ludwig Kraus

Abstract

Background and aims

As only a minority of pathological gamblers (PGr) presents for treatment, further knowledge about help-seeking behavior is required in order to enhance treatment utilization. The present study investigated factors associated with treatment participation in gamblers in Germany. As subclinical pathological gamblers (SPGr, fulfilling one to four DSM-IV-criteria) are target of early intervention due to high risk of transition to pathological gambling, they were subject of special interest.

Methods

The study analyzed data from a general population survey (n = 234, SPGr: n = 198, PGr: n = 36) and a treatment study (n = 329, SPGr: n = 22, PGr: n = 307). A two-step weighting procedure was applied to ensure comparability of samples. Investigated factors included socio-demographic variables, gambling behavior, symptoms of pathological gambling and substance use.

Results

In PGr, regular employment and non-German nationality were positively associated with being in treatment while gambling on the Internet and gaming machines and fulfilling more DSM-IV-criteria lowered the odds. In SPGr, treatment attendance was negatively associated with married status and alcohol consumption and positively associated with older age, higher stakes, more fulfilled DSM-IV criteria and regular smoking.

Conclusions

In accordance to expectations more severe gambling problems and higher problem awareness and/or external pressure might facilitate treatment entry. There are groups with lower chances of being in treatment: women, ethnic minorities, and SPGr. We propose target group specific offers, use of Internet-based methods as possible adaptions and/or extensions of treatment offers that could enhance treatment attendance.

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