Authors:Emmanuel Lazega, Lise Mounier, Marie-Thér?se Jourda, and Rafaël Stofer
The difference between individual social capital and organizational (or corporate) social capital has been an important topic
of research in sociology during the past decade. The existence of this difference between two forms of social capital evokes
an old question in a new manner: what matters most in explaining individual actors' performance? Is it personal social or
collective resources provided by the organization to which the individuals belong and in which they work? In this paper we
provide a preliminary answer to this question based on a multi-level network study of the top 'elites' in French cancer research
during 1996-1998. By multi-level we mean that we reconstituted both the inter-organizational networks of exchange between
most French laboratories carrying out cancer research in 1999; simultaneously, we reconstituted key social networks of the
top individual elites in cancer research in France during that same year. Given our 'linked design' (i.e., knowing to which
laboratory each researcher belongs), we were able to disentangle the effects of structural properties of the laboratory from
the effects of characteristics of the individual researcher (including structural ones) on the latter's performance. Performance
was measured by a score based on the impact factor of the journal in which each researcher published. Our results show that
organizational social capital matters more, and more consistently, than individual relational capital in explaining variations
in performance by French top cancer researchers.
In order to prevent the formation of a gap between the quality and quantity in Iranian scientific publications, this study
makes an effort to analyze Iranian scientific publications indexed on the ISI Web of Science database using quantitative and
qualitative scientometrics criteria over a ten year period. As a first step, all Iranian institutes were divided into three
categories; universities, research institutes and other organizations. Then they were compared according to quantitative and
qualitative criteria. Second, the correlation between the quality and quantity of the publications was measured. The research
findings indicated that, according to qualitative criteria (citation, citation impact and percentage of cited documents) there
are no meaningful differences among the three groups, while regarding quantitative criterion(number of papers), universities
rank higher than the other two groups. The results also indicated that there is a positive and meaningful correlation among
qualitative and quantitative criteria in the scholarly scientific publications conducted by Iranian organizations. In other
words, in Iranian organizations the quality of publications increases as their quantity increases. The comparison of magnitude
of correlation between these two criteria in the three categories reveals the fact that the correlation between number of
papers and citations criterion in research institutes is stronger than the other two groups.
Social impacts and degrees of organization inherent to opinion formation for interacting agents on networks present interesting
questions of general interest from physics to sociology. We present a quantitative analysis of a case implying an evolving
small size network, i.e. that inherent to the ongoing debate between modern creationists (most are Intelligent Design (ID)
proponents (IDP) and Darwin’s theory of Evolution Defenders (DED)). This study is carried out by analyzing the structural
properties of the citation network unfolded in the recent decades by publishing works belonging to members of the two communities.
With the aim of capturing the dynamical aspects of the interaction between the IDP and DED groups, we focus on two key quantities,
namely, the degree of activity of each group and the corresponding degree of impact on the intellectual community at large.
A representative measure of the former is provided by the rate of production of publications (RPP), whilst the latter can
be assimilated to the rate of increase in citations (RIC). These quantities are determined, respectively, by the slope of
the time series obtained for the number of publications accumulated per year and by the slope of a similar time series obtained
for the corresponding citations. The results indicate that in this case, the dynamics can be seen as geared by triggered or
damped competition. The network is a specific example of marked heterogeneity in exchange of information activity in and between
the communities, particularly demonstrated through the nodes having a high connectivity degree, i.e. opinion leaders.
Authors:Tamás M. Bőhm, Lidia Shestopalova, Alexandra Bendixen, Andreas G. Andreou, Julius Georgiou, Guillame Garreau, Philippe Pouliquen, Andrew Cassidy, Susan L. Denham, and István Winkler
organisation in auditory streaming. In: Lopez-Poveda, E.A., Palmer, A. R., Meddis, R. (eds.), The Neurophysiological Bases of Auditory Perception (pp. 477–488). Springer.
Denham, S. L., Winkler, I. (2006). The role of predictive
2006-ban jelent meg az Európai Rákkutatási és Kezelési Szervezet korábbi megállapításokat korszerűsítő ajánlása, amelyben a rákos betegekben kialakuló anémia kezelésére adott vértranszfúziót, illetve az ezt követő erythropoetin-kezeléseket értékelik. Az ajánlásban a vértranszfúziót a 9 g% hemoglobinszintre csökkenő anémia esetén javasolják. Eddig a kemoterápia következtében kialakult anémia vértranszfúziós kezelésére egyértelműen meghatározott hemoglobin-határértékszint Magyarországon nem szerepelt.
A szerzők az osztályukon 2005-ben kezelt petefészekrákos betegeknek adott vértranszfúziók gyakoriságát vizsgálták. Nemzetközi, illetve hazai egyértelmű ajánlás hiányában a vizsgálati időszakban a vértranszfúziókat – a beteg klinikai állapotát is figyelembe véve – a 10 g%-ot elérő anémia esetén alkalmazták.
Anyag és módszer:
Az Országos Onkológiai Intézet Nőgyógyászati Osztályán 190 hám eredetű, petefészekrákos betegben történt kemoterápia. Ha a hemoglobinszint 10 g% alá csökkent, választott vörösvértest-transzfúziót végeztek, majd a betegek többségében (51/64 = 79,6%), erythropoetin-kezelés történt.
A 190 közül 64 betegnél (64/190 = 34%) történt vérátömlesztés a kemoterápia kapcsán kialakult anémia miatt, s az utóbbiaknak csaknem felében (34/64 = 53%) 1-nél több alkalommal végeztek vértranszfúziót. A betegek 86%-ában a vértranszfúzióra G2-súlyosságú anémia miatt került sor. Az ismételten szükséges vértranszfúziókat a leggyakrabban a carboplatin-gemcitabin- (16/16) kezelések után alkalmazták.
A petefészekrákokban adott kemoterápiák a betegek harmadában okoznak 10 g%-nál súlyosabb fokú anémiát. A vérszegénység kezelésében a vértranszfúzión kívül gondolni kell az erythropoetin-készítmények alkalmazására.
different models can be exchanged and discursive knowledge generated as a recursive mechanism in addition to and on top of the sum total of reflexive models at the level of each individual agent or in historical components of structure (such as organizations
Throughout the reform process of the European university system, the importance of collaboration between actors at the academy and other areas of the economy and society are ever increasing, as evidenced by a growing number of co-authored articles and the number of citations to such works.This article analyses the characteristics of publications co-authored by Hungarian university researchers with non-academic partners. Scientometric indicators are used as primary methodological tools. Our sample was the publication output of 12 universities, which covers 90% of the university sphere’s publications, between 2001 and 2005 and was taken from the publications of Hungarian institutions of higher education appearing in the Web of Science database. The authors employed a new, important aspect in the cooperation activity of Hungarian universities: their connection with the non-academic partners. The selection and the institutional location of the co-authors resulted in an important database for further analysis. Based on the empirical analysis of the publication and citation performance data of 12 such universities the authors concluded that the proportion of citations to publications co-authored with either academic or non-academic partners is significantly higher for international partners than it is for Hungarian ones. For one publication, the proportion of citations to articles co-authored with foreign non-academic partners, such as firms or health care institutions, was five times higher than the number relating to papers co-authored with Hungarian firms or health care institutions. Higher citedness of the joint articles with the foreign country institutes than domestic partners are in harmony with observation in other countries. Generally the rate of the co-authored articles with non-academic partners is rather low. However it scatters to a great extent concerning the different universities. The presence or absence of medicine in the profile of the universities seems an important factor of that difference.
The article deals with the various problems of an implementation of publication indicators on a departmental level in West-German universities. The German university system relies mostly on social and informal control mechanisms. Bibliometric indicators can provide adequate information for an effective social control in such a system. However, they will only be accepted and effective if they are valid, thoroughly reliable and robust. A successful adaptation of individual goals and behaviour depends largely on the particular interests and incentives of the faculty members across various departmental arrangements.
Authors:Mathieu Ouimet, Nabil Amara, Réjean Landry, and John Lavis
The research questions are as follows: to what extent do Canadian medical school faculty members have person-to-person interactions
with individuals working in public and private sector organizations? What are the characteristics of Canadian medical school
faculty members who interact with individuals working in these work settings? Are these different network patterns complementary
or substitute? The data used for this study are from a cross-sectional survey of Canadian medical school faculty members (n
= 907). Structural multivariate ordered probit models were estimated to explore the characteristics of faculty members with
different network patterns and to see if these network patterns are complementary or substitute. Study results suggest that
the different network patterns considered in the study are not conflicting, but that some patterns correspond to different
faculty member profiles.