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Bevezetés: A machiavellizmust szociál- és személyiségpszichológusok a másik személyhez való pragmatikus, érzéketlen, kihasználó és manipulatív hozzáállásként írják le. Számos korábbi kutatás összefüggésbe hozta a machiavellista személyiségvonást és a társkapcsolatok zavarait, illetve a személyiség leíró szinten diszfunkcionálisnak minősített működését. Célkitűzés: A szerző annak a vizsgálatát tűzte ki célul, hogy a személyiségzavar interperszonális problémákban megnyilvánuló vetülete és a machiavellizmus között milyen kapcsolat áll fenn. Módszer: A vizsgálatban 252 személy (146 nő és 106 férfi; életkori átlag±szórás: 32,46±5,39 év) töltött ki egy machiavellizmust és egy interperszonális problémákat mérő önbeszámolós skálát. Eredmények: A machiavellizmus számos interperszonális problémával közepesen erős összefüggést mutatott. Közülük legerősebben az agresszió és a tekintéllyel szembeni ambivalencia jósolta be a machiavellista vonások megjelenését. Következtetések: A vizsgálat eredményeit a szerző többek között a páciens–gyógyító kapcsolat vonatkozásában vitatja meg. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(39), 1584–1588.

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Célkitűzés

A tanulmány célja, hogy áttekintést nyújtson azon nemzetközi empirikus kutatások főbb eredményeiről, melyek azzal foglalkoznak, hogy az IKT-eszközök használata milyen összefüggést mutat a kognitív működéssel, személyiségvonásokkal. A kognitív működés területei közül a következőkre fókuszál a tanulmány; gondolkodás, figyelem és emlékezet, végrehajtó funkciók, intelligencia. A személyiségvonások közül az impulzivitás, szenzoros élménykeresés és kontrollhelyelvárás szerepe jelenik meg.

Az áttekintés módszertana

Az összefoglaló tanulmány olyan kutatások eredményeire támaszkodik, melyek nemzetközi színtéren született empirikus vizsgálatok a fent felsorolt témákon belül. A tanulmány törekszik a témában friss, releváns nemzetközi empirikus kutatások áttekintésére. A főbb eredmények és az ezekből levont következtetések: Az IKT-eszközök használata feltételezhetően eredményez bizonyos átalakulásokat kognitív működésünkben, azonban a kutatások eredményei arra a következtetésre vezetnek, hogy nem önmagában az IKT-használat az, ami a kognitív változásokat eredményezi, hanem az IKT-eszközök nem megfelelő használata. Vagyis valószínűleg a megfelelő IKT-használati szokások elsajátítása a kulcs abban, hogy az IKT-eszközök kognitív működésünkre gyakorolt negatív hatásainak mérséklésével ki tudjuk használni ezen eszközök előnyeit. Az IKT-eszközök nem megfelelő, problematikus használata olyan személyiségtényezőkkel mutat összefüggést, mint az impulzivitás (türelmetlenség, alacsony önkontroll és kitartás), gátolatlanság unalomintolerancia, külső kontrollos kontrollhelyelvárás. Kérdéses azonban, hogy ezen személyiségbeli jellemzőket valóban az IKT-eszközök bizonyos típusú használata idézi-e elő, vagy fordítva; az eleve ilyen személyiségvonással jellemezhető személyek hajlamosabbak a problematikus IKT-használatra? Ahhoz, hogy erre a kérdésre nagy bizonyossággal választ tudjunk adni, több randomizált kontrollált kutatásra van szükség a területen. A tanulmányban szereplő empirikus kutatásokat így kutatásmódszertani szempontból is fontos megvizsgálni annak érdekében, hogy árnyaltabb következtetéseket tudjunk megfogalmazni elemzésük révén.

Aim

The goal of this paper is to review the main findings of the international empirical studies which are focusing on the relationship of ICT-usage and cognitive functioning, and on the relationship of ICT-usage and personality factors. In the field of cognitive functioning, this paper studies the followings; reasoning, attention, memory functions, executive functions, intelligence. From the personality traits, this paper engages in impulsivity, sensory seeking and locus of control.

The methodology of the review

This paper reviews the relevant and up-to-date international empirical studies, which are made in the aforementioned fields. Main findings and conduisons: The usage of ICT- devices presumably results in changes in our cognitive functioning, but we can conclude from the results of the reviewed studies, that these changes are the impacts of the maladaptive use of these devices. So probably the most important issue is the acquirement of adequate habits in the filed of ICT-usage to moderate the ICT-devices' negative effects on our cognitive functioning, and to maximize the benefits of these devices.The maladaptive, problematic use of ICT-devices is in relationship with some personality traits, with impulsivity (impatience, low self-control, lack of persistence), with disinhibition, boredom susceptibility, and external locus of control. At the same time the direction of casuality is questionable, so we don't know, if problematic ICT-usage causes these changes in our personality, or conversely; people with these personality traits susceptible more to problematic ICT-usage? If we want to answer this question, we need more randomized controlled studies in this field. Therefore it is important to examine the methodology of the empirical studies which are appeared in this paper, in order to make accurate conclusions about them.

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Abstract  

Two separate studies were undertaken of the personality characteristics associated with research creativity and teaching effectiveness in university psychology professors. In the first study, 52 professors at The University of Western Ontario were evaluated on 29 trait dimensions using four assessment techniques: faculty peer ratings, student ratings, self ratings, and objective questionnaires. A composite criterion of research creativity was generated from publication and citation counts. A composite for teaching effectiveness was created from 5 years of archival data based on formal student evaluations. The personality measures demonstrated considerable convergence across modes of assessment for many traits. In turn, several traits differentiated between most and least creative researchers and most and least effective teachers. A second study, using a self report survey sent to 400 professors in graduate psychology departments at 9 Canadian universities, revealed substantial replications of the findings of Study 1. Limiting ourselves to those personality traits that reliably loaded on Research and Teaching factors in both studies, we may describe the creative researcher as ambitious, enduring, seeking definiteness, dominant, showing leadership, aggressive, independent, non-meek, and non-supportive. The effective teacher is best described as liberal, sociable, showing leadership, extraverted, nonanxious, objective, supporting, non-authoritarian, non-defensive, intelligent, and aesthetically sensitive.

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Abstract

The degree to which men invest financial resources, time, and effort into pursuing and maintaining relationships may be perceived by women as a cue to that man's suitability as father and a mate. Women's mate preferences are also influenced by cues to underlying heritable mate quality, such as an attractive, masculine voice. Relatively more masculine men may be able to provide heritable benefits to offspring, but masculinity is associated with decreased investment in relationships and offspring. Both individual differences in women's preferences for masculine voices and women's attributions of negative personality traits to masculine men suggests that women may be somewhat aware of the negative associations between men's physical masculinity and relationship/parental investment. In the current study, we found that in general, women perceived feminized men's voices as significantly more likely to invest time and effort, and be financially generous with romantic partners. We also found that women's preferences for masculine voice pitch in a long-term, but not short-term relationship context, were positively related to perceptions of male financial generosity and investment of time and effort in romantic relationships. These perceptions may represent an adaptive heuristic that aids women in selecting long-term mates that are likely to invest in relationships and offspring.

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Abstract

A good sense of humour is commonly offered in written dating advertisements demonstrating that humour is an important quality to have when attracting a mate, but not all humour is the same. This study used vignettes in the style of a personal advertisement to measure the attractiveness of affiliative and aggressive humour in different relationship contexts. The results demonstrated that affiliative humour was more attractive than aggressive humour in both relationship contexts but especially for long-term relationships. The results follow the pattern expected of affiliative humour styles being more attractive for long-term relationships due to being linked to qualities that may be important in long-term relationships such as likelihood of cooperation, and aggressive humour styles not being favoured for long-term relationships due to being linked to qualities that may be detrimental in long-term relationships. A follow-up study confirmed that different humour styles were associated with different perceived personality traits. Together these findings suggest that humour may be used to indicate an individual's personality and that the attractiveness of a good sense of humour depends on both the type of humour and the type of relationship being sought.

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Abstract

Positive relationships between perceived intelligence, actual intelligence and facial attractiveness have been attributed to (a) an attractiveness halo effect in which attractive individuals are attributed with positive personality traits and (b) a “good genes” model of mate choice. We sought to determine whether cues to intelligence exist in the face beyond an attractiveness halo effect and to explore relationships between residual cues to intelligence and personality attributions in male and female faces. In Study 1, we attempted to parametrically manipulate the perceived intelligence of faces while controlling for attractiveness. Results demonstrated that we manipulated perceived intelligence but may not have adequately controlled for an attractiveness halo effect: faces that were manipulated to look high in perceived intelligence were rated as more attractive. In Study 2, we found perceived intelligence to be related positively to perceived friendliness and sense of humour in male and female faces and inversely to perceived dominance in female faces. Results are discussed in the context of models of “good genes” and “attractiveness halo” models of the relationships between intelligence and attractiveness.

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This commentary supports the argument that there is an increasing tendency to subsume a range of excessive daily behaviors under the rubric of non-substance related behavioral addictions. The concept of behavioral addictions gained momentum in the 1990s with the recent reclassification of pathological gambling as a non-substance behavioral addiction in DSM-5 accelerating this process. The propensity to label a host of normal behaviors carried out to excess as pathological based simply on phenomenological similarities to addictive disorders will ultimately undermine the credibility of behavioral addiction as a valid construct. From a scientific perspective, anecdotal observation followed by the subsequent modification of the wording of existing substance dependence diagnostic criteria, and then searching for biopsychosocial correlates to justify classifying an excessive behavior resulting in harm as an addiction falls far short of accepted taxonomic standards. The differentiation of normal from non-substance addictive behaviors ought to be grounded in sound conceptual, theoretical and empirical methodologies. There are other more parsimonious explanations accounting for such behaviors. Consideration needs to be given to excluding the possibility that excessive behaviors are due to situational environmental/social factors, or symptomatic of an existing affective disorder such as depression or personality traits characteristic of cluster B personalities (namely, impulsivity) rather than the advocating for the establishment of new disorders.

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Background

Attachment theory has been used in personalized treatments since decades. It is a major framework for understanding images of the self, affect regulation, reflective functions and interpersonal relationships. The improvement of attachment functioning is associated with positive treatment outcomes in eating disorders. However, attachment interventions have not been summarized in their psychotherapy.

Aims

The aim was to review the relevance of attachment features in the psychotherapy of eating disorders.

Methods

A literature review was carried out for empirical review and case studies, using the terms “eating disorder” and “attachment” from 1987 until 2017. From the 320 matches, 50 relevant studies were integrated into this review.

Results

The relationship between dysfunctional attachment and eating disorders could be conceptualized in seven ways, including transgenerational transmissions and mediator personality traits. Attachment can mediate between early experiences and adult symptoms, between intra- and interpersonal experiences, or may moderate the relationship between the risk factors and maladaptive eating. Attachment features also display a direct relationship with eating disorders, or may underlie their maintaining mechanisms. Nine psychotherapeutically relevant mediator factors could be identified, namely the patient’s self-concept and emotion-regulation, the conflation of self-esteem and body satisfaction, a sensitive interpersonal style, levels of perfectionism, depression, alexithymia, mentalization and reflective functions.

Conclusions

The assessment of attachment dysfunctions in the individual symptomatology may facilitate personalized case models. For patients with severe attachment dysfunctions, multimodal psychotherapies targeting the described focal points could be recommended. Randomized, controlled studies are required to test the efficacy of the interventions summarized, and to determine indications.

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Classical Protagonists – Medieval Postures

Body Language in Early Medieval Illustrations of Late Antique Texts

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: Anna Boreczky

The primary aim of my paper is to reveal the possible role of illustrations in the (re)interpretation of a text as seen in the example of an Ottonian image cycle illustrating a Late Antique adventure story. The work in question is the so-called Apollonius pictus (Budapest, National Széchényi Library, Cod. Lat. 4), a manuscript fragment consisting of three and a half large parchment leaves that contain the oldest known illustration cycle of the History of Apollonius, king of Tyre (Historia Apollonii Regis Tyri). The images (thirty-eight red line drawings) focus on the protagonists; with the exception of some ships, a few buildings and curtains, there is almost nothing that alludes to the mise-en-scène. In spite of their relative simplicity, the images effectively articulate the meaning of the story by means of the protagonists’ body language. Through the study of their postures and gestures in relation to the text and in the context of other early medieval visual narratives, I arrive at the conclusion that the images offer an alternative reading of the story. This reading gives the leading role to one of the female protagonists, Tarsia, and emphasizes special personality traits and life events that make her similar to saints. Analyzing the communicative function of the illustrations, I shed light on the Ottonian reception and use of classical narrative traditions from a specific perspective.

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. Psychological Monographs 47 Anderson, N. H. (1968) Likebleness Ratings of 555 personality-trait words. Journal of Personality and Social

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