The liquid-liquid extraction method used with alpha liquid scintillation with rejection of -emission is strongly dependent of the nature of the aqueous solution containing actinides. We propose to measure plutonium quantitatively by its labelling with236Pu. Two procedures of quantitative extraction have been developed as well as the mathematical fit to obtain accurate results. The limits of detection have been determined for several counting times like for instance 0.2 pg/l after one day of acquisition time. We have applied both procedures successfully for the determination of plutonium in doped drinking water and in solid samples after dissolution.
According to the Irish novelist James Joyce, Thomas Aquinas's well-known formal trilogy from the Summa Theologiae is central to understanding beauty: proportio, claritas, and integritas. Joyce in fact formulated a youthful aesthetic based on Aquinas in his novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916). Despite Joyce's ontological misunderstanding of Thomas, this article resumes several interpretations of Thomist aesthetics (i.e., J. Maritain, U. Ecco, and F. J. Kovach) and strives to renew an understanding of contemporary art with regard to its relationship to the good/true and the possible rejection of this relationship.
This study investigates the key factors influencing acceptance of the relevance of evolutionary theory to human behaviour, and the attitudes underlying them. Using data gathered from a wide-ranging questionnaire survey of students and staff in UK universities on attitudes to science, evolution and its application to human behaviour, multivariate analysis reveals that studying social sciences and sociocultural anthropology correlate with rejection of evolutionary approaches. The incompatibility of social science conceptions of humankind and human behaviour with evolutionary theory are discussed, with particular emphasis on the cultural focus of social scientists and modern attempts to incorporate cultural interactions into evolutionary approaches.
Authors:Péter Bor, József Csanádi, Gábor Veréb, Sándor Beszédes, Zita Šereš, Zsuzsanna László, Cecilia Hodúr, and Szabolcs Kertész
To meet the requirements defined by environmental protection regulations effective wastewater treatment is required to process effluents before discharging them into sewers or living waters. While membrane separation offers a quite advantageous method to reduce the organic load of wastewaters, membrane fouling is still limiting its application in wastewater treatment.
In this study, the possibility of membrane fouling reduction by increased shear rates on the surface of the membrane was investigated. 7 and 10 kDa MWCO ultrafiltration and 240 Da nanofiltration membranes were studied, with the use of a laboratory mode Vibratory Shear Enhanced Processing. This work mostly focused on studying the effects of module vibration and recirculation feed flow rate on permeate flux, specific energy demand and membrane rejections. Using the same operation parameters, vibration and non-vibration mode experiments were carried out with high and low recirculation flow rate to have a deeper understanding of the shear rate effects. It can be concluded that higher shear rate had a positive effect on the process: increased shear rate resulted in higher flux, higher overall rejection values, as well as a significantly decreased specific energy demand. By calculating and comparing the shear rates in experiments with different operating parameters, both vibration and nonvibration mode, both low and high recirculation flow rate, we have reached the conclusion that vibration causes a significantly higher shear rate increase than setting the recirculation flow rate high.
Authors:B. Wierczinski, J. Alstad, K. Eberhardt, J. Kratz, R. Malmbeck, M. Mendel, A. Nähler, J. Omtvedt, G. Skarnemark, N. Trautmann, and N. Wiehl
Fast solvent extraction is a chemical separation method, which can be applied to study exotic nuclides. Since about 1970 the
SISAK technique, which is an on-line method based on multi-stage solvent extraction separations, has been successfully used
to investigate the nuclear properties of β-decaying nuclides with half-lives down to about one second. During the last decade
it has become possible to produce transactinide elements in high enough yields to investigate their chemical properties on
a one-atom-at-a-time scale. For this purpose it was necessary to improve and change the detection part of the SISAK system
in order to be capable to detect spontaneously fissioning and α-decaying nuclides in a flowing organic solution. This technique
is based on liquid scintillation counting with pulse-shape discrimination and pile-up rejection
The Ukrainian writer and playwright Hryhory Kvitka-Osnovyanenko wrote his satirical drama The Visitor from the Capital or Turmoil in a District Town in 1827 but it was published only in 1840, while Nikolai Gogol’s play The Government Inspector was brought out in 1835. The topic of the incognito traveller, a false government inspector whom the threatened town officials attempt to suborn in different ways, circulated in the imperial Russian society at that time. The possible influence of Kvitka’s play on the famous The Government Inspector is a question which has excited the imagination of literary critics since the middle of 19th century although they have treated it quite differently. The range of opinions varies from the complete rejection of the possibility to suspect plagiarism, irrespective of the fact that Gogol himself denied he was familiar with his Ukrainian fellow writer’s play. An overview of opinions and articles devoted to the question is presented in the paper.
In this article we carry out a time-series analysis on monthly HUF-EUR exchange rate data using both the Engle-Granger and Johansen methodology in order to find evidence for Purchasing Power and Uncovered Interest Rate Parities. Our results confirm that the producer price indices and the exchange rates are co-integrated with two co-integration vectors. Unlike the bulk of empirical literature that finds a quite sluggish adjustment of exchange rates, our estimate of the half-life from the Hungarian data is around 5 months only. Additionally, we find that when both PPP and UIP are included in the model, we cannot reject the hypotheses of proportionality and symmetry at 10%, while rejection is possible at 5%.
carrier state is almost general in men. The virus induces B lymphocyte
but this is counteracted
immune response. Therefore, EBV-induced malignancies occur only when the immune
response is impaired, e.g. in transplant recipients. The versatility of the viral gene expression strategy
secures the consistent maintainance of the virus in healthy individuals. The
viral proteins required for transformation render the cell immunogenic.
Expression of the transforming genes leads to rejection, but these genes are
not required for the maintenance of the viral genome. EBV is an important
contributor for malignant transformation, even when it does not directly induce
cell proliferation. Several mechanisms have been unravelled in EBV-associated
tumors whereby the virus may modify the cellular phenotype and may influence
the interaction of tumor cells with their microenvironment. The virus carrier
state can lead to the evasion of apoptosis and can intensify the response to
growth promoting signals, too.
Authors:Scott Tumey, Thomas Brown, Terry Hamilton, and Darren Hillegonds
Based on the encouraging results of our initial efforts to develop a 90Sr accelerator mass spectrometry capability, we have undertaken efforts to enhance our system. By changing some key operating
parameters and constructing an optimized detector we were able to improve the discrimination of 90Sr from the isobaric interference 90Zr and reduce our instrumental background by nearly two orders of magnitude. Our current background (4 × 106 atoms, 3 mBq) is comparable to that achievable by decay counting, but is still a factor of ten higher than what is theoretically
predicted based on the efficiency of our system. Therefore, future plans include implementation of a time-of-flight system
to improve the rejection of 90Zr.
The aim of the present paper is to discuss Kristeva's notion of abjection, as it is presented in her book entitled Pouvoirs de l'horreur (essai sur l'abjection), and to analyse the consequences such a psychological view of literature seems to imply. Abjection is a mechanism of introjection/rejection that characterises the pre-oidipal affective life of human being. Before being able to constitute itself as subjet in the proper sense of the word, the human being judges the surrounding objects (partial objects, according to Melanie Klein's coinage) from the point of view of their immediate affective influence. As an example of this primitive affective reaction, which consists of rejecting the objects which are supposed to be "bad" and introjecting the ones which are supposed to be "good," Kristeva presents an analysis of Céline's novels. This paper tries to measure the consequences of this interpretation of literary writing.