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This study is a multivariate discriminant analysis that was performed to identify a set of physiological characteristics that can be used to distinguish between groups of durum wheat genotypes differing for adaptation to semi-arid environments. To this aim, at first twenty-six genotypes were classified as “adapted”, “nonadapted” or “indeterminate” on the basis of yield and yield stability, as determined in a drought-prone environment of southern Italy, over a minimum of 4 and a maximum of 9 years. Subsequently fifteen morpho-physiological traits and the yields were assessed in a field study. Univariate statistical analysis of morpho-physiological traits to compare genotypes and groups of genotypes showed significant differences between the genotypes, although no single character could be used to discriminate between the genotype groups. On the contrary discriminant functions, based on 13 morpho-physiological traits, were effective for the full discrimination of all of the groups, with a 100% success rate. Four traits was the minimum needed to fully discriminate the “adapted” genotypes. Together with the water status parameter, the rheological properties and the affinity for bound water are new promising leaf traits, to distinguish between the plants coming from these different groups.

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Geophysical methods are important tools for the investigation of the structure and geodynamic development of the lithosphere. The central and eastern parts of the Western Carpathians are bordered in the north by a thicker  and stronger lithosphere of the European platform (100-150  km), which is underthrust (about of 50 km) beneath the margin of the overriding Carpathian orogen. This thickening is interpreted as remnants of subducted slabs. In contrast, the “thin” lithosphere at the western margin of the Western Carpathians can be considered as a result of oblique collision along a deep-seated transform zone between the platform and orogenic lithosphere. Neo-Alpine “soft” collision and retreating subduction of this orogen can also be discovered by means of quantitative interpretation of observed gravity field. The crustal thickness in the Western Carpathians ranges among 27-35 km. The central Western Carpathians are characterized by thicker crust (30-55 km) in comparison with thinner crust (25-30 km) in the Pannonian Basin System. This feature is probably the result of the youngest lithosphere processes from the Middle Miocene. Rheological properties of the Western Carpathian lithosphere show that the mechanical strengths decrease within the whole lithosphere from the area of the European platform via the Western Carpathians to the Pannonian Basin. The most remarkable and important first-order tectonic structures (seismo-tectonic zones) in  the Western Carpathians are the zones of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, the Mur-Mürz-Leitha fault zone, the Čertovica fault zone and the Hurbanovo line. Map of neo-Alpine fault systems and neotectonic regions (blocks) of  Slovakia was defined.

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. 2013 a. Rheological properties of barley and flaxseed composites . Food Nutri. Sci. 4 : 41 – 48 . Inglett , G.E. , Chen , D. , Xu , J. , Lee , S. 2013 b. Pasting

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35 129 131 Tscheuschner, H.-D. (1991) Rheological properties of chocolate masses and cocoa butter dispersions and the texture of chocolate. Food

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. Higaki , K. , Koyano , T. , Hachiya , I. , Sato , K. , Suzuki , K. ( 2004 ). Rheological properties of β-fat made of binary mixtures of high- and low-melting fats . Food Res Int , 37 , 799 – 804

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Figura , L.O. & Teixeira , A.A. (2007): Rheological properties.-in: Food Physics , Springer, pp. 181–185. Teixeira A.A. Food Physics

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. 2010 28 185 191 Dubat, A. 2010. A new AACC international approved method to measure rheological properties of a dough

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: M. Tomczyńska-Mleko, W. Gustaw, T. Piersiak, K. Terpiłowski, B. Sołowiej, M. Wesołowska-Trojanowska, and S. Mleko

Gustaw , W. (2008): Production and rheological properties of whey protein-polysaccharide mixed (composites) gels. Acta Alimentaria, 37 , 359–365. Gustaw W. Production and rheological

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control systems: Fuzzy logic controller, Part I and II , IEEE T. Syst. Man Cyb. , 20 , 404 – 435 . MOHAN RAO , V.N. & Q uintero , X. ( 2005 ): Rheological properties of solid foods . -in: RAO

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Yun, J. J., Hsieh, L. Y., Barbano, M. D. & Kindstedt, S. P. (1994): Draw pH and storage affect rheological properties of Mozzarella cheese. J. Fd. Sci. , 59 , 1302-1304. Draw pH and storage affect rheological properties of

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