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In 386, shortly after his conversion, Augustine gave up his post as professor of rhetoric at Milan to devote himself, together with a group of relatives, friends and students, to the otium philosophandi in Cassiciacum. There, together with his familia, he deals with questions of classical philosophy. The discussions that Augustine led at this time formed the basis for the Dialogues of Cassiciacum Contra Academicos, De beata vita, and De ordine, which had just taken place thereafter.

In the introduction of De beata vita, which is dedicated to Theodorus, Augustine compares the human life with a stormy sea. The salvation of man is the port of philosophy, from where one reaches the mainland of the beata vita. The metaphor is very detailed. A central spot in the entire picture is dominated by the inmanissimus mons, which is located in front of the harbor and presents a great danger to sailors.

There is no clear interpretation of this passage in the secondary literature. The aim of the present text is to propose in parallel reading of two passages from Confessiones with De beata vita to explain the image of the huge mountain as a metaphor for Neoplatonism.

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In a memorable letter of 18 March 1926, brought to the attention of Anglophone scholars by David Schneider, Bartók’s second wife Ditta Pásztory described her reaction (obviously also reflecting that of her husband’s) to Stravinsky’s Piano Concerto just after listening to its Budapest premiere with the composer at the piano as being attracted to the machine music but missing in it what she called her “homeland.” In the present article I should like to show that the machine music described as intimidating is no more threatening than a sewing machine, because the inspiration for it was 192Os-style performances of Bach. Furthermore, despite his notorious rhetoric, Stravinsky too aimed at exaltation and catharsis. Parallels between the climaxes in Bartók’s First Piano Concerto and those in Stravinsky’s (especially in the first movement) might reveal the real kinship between the two works. At the same time, Bartók’s obviously different approach to Bach, testified in his few fragmentary recordings, may help us understand the differences of aesthetics between the two composers in their respective neoclassical style showcased in the most important genre for a concertizing pianist.

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The paper considers the comments of museum visitors on the earliest book on Bulgarian history (1762) to which Bulgarian historians have given the significance of pillar of the “national revival” and examines them as sources for the analysis of how people perceive the past. The comments do not refer to the exhibit as historical artifact, but much more as evidence for historical continuity and as a symbol of the common past and national affiliation. They bring the past into the present and put emphasis on its political and cultural meanings for the present. Although separate individuals wrote their own comments, they reproduced ideas from a shared historico-political knowledge. They reflected the scholarly presentations and evaluations of the past and the festive rhetoric of public commemorative celebrations as well. The past is perceived through a lens of collective concepts acquired and maintained by means of institutionalised activities such as academic research, schooling, and rituals. From another point of view, the comments are evidence for the impact of the cultural management of cultural and political elites on popular understanding.

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Abstract

The Hungarian and Polish observations show how the use of the public law is limited in illiberal constitutional states. This paper claims that certain non-legal reasons for effective successful transformation to an illiberal state, such as the emergence of populist rhetoric and morality; the clear lack of political self-restraint and the inability or unwillingness of the people to form a strong and capable civil society or to raise their voice against extreme views or resist an aggressive and clearly unfounded political campaign, have been pre-determined and influenced by the historical and socio-psychological particularities of the nations in question. If this is indeed the case, this may offer another, though obviously non-conclusive, explanation as to why public law measures and mechanisms have failed to preserve liberal democracy.

The paper concludes that overturning illiberal constitutionalism by either political or constitutional and legal means, at the present time, seems doubtful, if not impossible. The historically and psychologically determined national and constitutional identities of Hungary and Poland are not apt to nurture liberal constitutionalism in the long term.

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Phrased in idealistic terms and having benefited from positive and fastidious correlative obligations, economic, social and cultural rights (ESCR) — also termed “claim-rights” — have long been regarded as “poor relatives” of their elder “brothers”, i.e. civil and political rights (CPR) or “liberty-rights”, which are surrounded by an aura of historic authority and judicial force. These rights have often been pushed by doctrine towards the field of legal rhetoric. However, jurisprudence has proved that, despite such criticism, ESCR may well be subject to judicial control, either by the indivisibility principle of human rights or interpreting correlative obligations. The article aims to show that, by virtue of its complex structure, the European system for the protection of human rights contributes to enhancing the judicial efficiency of ESCR in social space. The understanding of this phenomenon may be used by the national advocate for a more efficient handling of international instruments for the protection of human rights. The method used here will be the comparative jurisprudential analysis.

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. S. 29, wo aber statt Spezis „gute Freunde” steht Die wichtigsten Initiativen dieser Richtung waren: I. A. Richards, The Philosophy of Rhetoric, Oxford 1936; M. Black, Models and Metaphors, Ithaca 1962

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, Technik, Sprache. Aufsätze aus den Jahren 1927–1933 . Hamburg : Felix Meiner Verlag , 93 – 111 . De Man , Paul , 1984 . Autobiography as De-Facement . In: The Rhetoric

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Petraglia, J. (1998): Reality by Design: The Rhetoric and Technology of Authenticity in Education . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Reality by Design: The Rhetoric and Technology of Authenticity in

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A barátság témája Platóntól fogva jelen van a görög etikai irodalomban. A Kr. u. II. századra a filozófiai és retorikai irodalom előre kész érveket dolgozott ki a témában. Plutarchos az aristotelési „εἶναι φίλον … οὐκ ἔστι πρὸς πολλούς” (Arist. EN 1171a 18–20) tételt járja körbe erkölcsi buzdító jellegű művében. Hatalmas irodalmi, filozófiai jártassága különlegessé teszi a téma kifejtését. Jelen tanulmány az irodalomtörténeti előzmények rövid áttekintése után Plutarchos antropológiájából kiindulva vizsgálja meg a filozófus barátság-koncepcióját. Plutarchosi sajátosság a barát és a testvér közti hasonlóság, illetve a barát és a hízelgő közti különbség, amely a Moralia vonatkozó műveivel történő összehasonlításból látható. A De amicorum multitudine részletes elemzése után a tanulmányt a plutarchosi barátság-felfogáshoz legközelebb álló, és annak előzményéül tekintett aristotelési barátság-koncepcióval történő összehasonlítás zárja.

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Halldén, P. (2005): What is Arab Islamic Rhetoric? Rethinking the History of Muslim Oratory Art and Homiletics. International Journal of Middle East Studies Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 19–38. Halldén P

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