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Abstract  

The calorimetry exchange (CALEX) program is administered by New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL). The main objective of the program is to provide an independent verification of the internal quality control practices in nuclear material safeguards facilities making plutonium accountability measurements by non-destructive calorimetry/gamma spectrometry techniques. Facilities measure the calorimetric power, and plutonium and 241Am isotope abundances of CALEX program standards using routine accountability procedures. The measurement results as well as two other quantities (effective specific power and plutonium mass) calculated from these results are evaluated for accuracy (or bias) and precision. In this paper, a limited number of measurement results of a CALEX program standard (identified as Calex I) are evaluated with specific goals to identify a suitable method for uncertainty estimation and to identify the major contributors to the uncertainties. In order to achieve the goals, the Calex I measurement results were evaluated using two different methods: the first method confined to uncertainty estimation from random variations of the measurement results alone, and the second method providing a more comprehensive evaluation of uncertainties from both the measurements and the characterized values of the measured standard according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The results of this study, and a subsequent study extended to a larger number of results in the CALEX program database, are expected to provide relevant input for developing the International Target Values for plutonium measurements by the calorimetry/gamma spectrometry method.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: R. Jakopič, A. Verbruggen, R. Eykens, F. Kehoe, H. Kühn, Y. Kushigeta, U. Jacobsson, J. Bauwens, S. Richter, R. Wellum, and Y. Aregbe

Abstract  

In nuclear safeguards, precise and accurate isotopic analyses are needed for two major elements from the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium and plutonium. This can be achieved by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which is one of the most reliable analytical techniques for the determination of plutonium amount content to a high level of accuracy. In order to achieve reliable isotope measurements isotopic reference materials with certified amount of plutonium and isotopic composition are required. At the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) various plutonium spike reference materials for isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu are available. This enabled the setup of an inter-calibration campaign inter-linking selected plutonium spikes on a metrological basis applying state-of-the-art measurement procedures. The aim of this campaign is threefold: firstly to perform measurements on selected plutonium spike isotopic reference materials for quality control purposes, secondly to verify the amount content and the isotopic composition of the recently produced IRMM-1027m large sized dried (LSD) spikes and thirdly to demonstrate IRMM’s measurement capabilities for plutonium analysis via external quality tools. The obtained results using various spike isotopic reference materials will be presented and discussed in this paper. The measurement uncertainties of the IDMS results were calculated according to the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM).

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Abstract  

Most neutron detection sensors presently employ 3He gas-filled detectors. Despite their excellent performance and widespread use, there are significant limitations to this technology. A significant alternative neutron sensor utilizing neutron-active material incorporated into a glass scintillator is presented that offers novel commercial sensors not possible or practical with gas tube technology. The scintillating optical fiber permits sensors with a multitude of sizes ranging from devices of a single fiber of 150µm to sensors with tens of thousands of fibers with areas as large as 5 m2 depending on the neutron flux to be measured. A second significant advantage is the use of high-speed electronics that allow a greater dynamic range, not possible with gas detectors. These sensors are flexible, conformable and less sensitive to vibration that optimizes the source-to-detector geometry and provides robust performance in field applications. The glass-fibers are sensitive to both gamma-rays and neutrons. However, the coincidence electronics are optimized for neutron to gamma-ray discrimination allowing very sensitive measurements with a low false-alarm rate. Applications include SNM surveillance, material control and accountability (MC&A), safeguard inspections, Pu health physics/bioassay and environmental characterization.

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Abstract  

The concentration of thirty-four elements each in Ghanaian dried tobacco leaves and snuff (powdered tobacco) have been determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration of Hg, Cr, As and Cd in both set of samples were found to be in excess of WHO limits for drinking water, thus indicating potential toxicity of the samples. Cr, Cd, Sb and Cu were two to eight times high, whilst As and Hg were comparable in powdered tobacco and tobacco leaves. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of elemental concentrations and the toxicological strengths in both tobacco leaves and tobacco powder. The results indicated that the toxicity of the snuff was higher than the tobacco. This indicated strongly that from the medical point of view, the level of toxic accumulation in users might be potentially high in the tobacco powder compared to the leaves. Thus, education of the Ghanaian public on the threshold value of toxic elements contained in both set of samples was suggested to safeguard users against these addictives.

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Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Museum International , 56(1–2): 140. Republic of South Africa Aikawa N. An historical overview of the protection of the UNESCO International Convention for the Safeguarding of the

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Corporate governance has become increasingly important in developed and developing countries just after a series of corporate scandals and failures in a number of countries. Corporate governance structure is often viewed as a means of corporate success despite prior studies reveal mixed, somewhere conflicting and ambiguous, and somewhere no relationship between governance structure and performance. This study empirically investigates the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and financial performance of listed banking companies in Bangladesh by using two multiple regression models. The study reveals that a good number of companies do not comply with the regulatory requirements indicating remarkable shortfall in corporate governance practice. The companies are run by the professional managers having no duality and no ownership interest for which they are compensated by high remuneration to curb agency conflict. Apart from some inconsistent relationship between some corporate variables, the corporate governance mechanisms do not appear to have significant relationship with financial performances. The findings reveal an insignificant negative impact or somewhere no impact of independent directors and non-independent non-executive directors on the level of performance that strongly support the concept that the managers are essentially worthy of trust and earn returns for the owners as claimed by stewardship theory. The study provides support for the view that while much emphasis on corporate governance mechanisms is necessary to safeguard the interest of stakeholders; corporate governance on its own, as a set of codes or standards for corporate conformance, cannot make a company successful. Companies need to balance corporate governance mechanisms with performance by adopting strategic decision and risk management with the efficient utilization of the organization ’s resources.

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The paper discusses the issue whether art and works of art created by artists can be assessed using legal means. The paper provides an overview of the different Hungarian constitutional provisions governing artistic freedom from 1949 to the present, and examines the possible components of freedom of arts as a fundamental right, within the confines of the Hungarian legal system. According to the author, the subjective side of the artistic freedom integrates into the fundamental right of freedom of expression, ie artistic expression is free, but it does not require a separate, specific protection under constitutional law. However, the specificities of artistic expression as factors influencing the scope of the freedom of expression might be taken into account, e.g. symbolic speech, the specificities of a genre or the time elapsed since publication). Hence, works of art and literary pieces are to be treated as specific, unique forms of opinions – they are presented as a form of freedom of expression but this does not go beyond the boundaries of freedom of expression as a fundamental right. At the same time, the regulation of art, irrespective of this, might be justified even in the Fundamental Law. Setting requirements for the state (the objective obligation of the state to safeguard the institutions of fundamental law) is a precondition for the birth and preservation of works of art, which constitutes the objective side of artistic freedom without any specific subject and denotes its specific constitutional content But, an appropriate level of protection for freedom of expression ensures that this recognition should not have any detrimental consequences for freedom of arts.

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A polycystás ovarium szindróma a leggyakoribb heterogén endokrin rendellenesség reproduktív korú nőkben. A szindróma továbbra is rejtélyes rendellenesség, amelynek etiológiája még nem tisztázott. Családi előfordulása viszonylag gyakori polycystás ovarium szindrómában szenvedő betegek körében, ami jelentős genetikai komponensre utal, jóllehet, az öröklődés módja nem tisztázott. A szerzők orvosi irodalmi adatok alapján áttekintették a genetikai és környezeti tényezők szerepét a polycystás ovarium szindróma kialakulásában. A mai napig még nem azonosítottak olyan gént, ami okozza vagy jelentős mértékben hozzájárul a kórkép fenotípusának kialakításához. A polycystás ovarium szindrómát olyan genetikai rendellenességnek kell tekinteni, amelyben számos genetikai és környezeti tényező kölcsönhatása határozza meg a heterogén klinikai és biokémiai fenotípust. Összefoglalva a jelenlegi bizonyítékokat, a szerzők arra a következtetésre jutottak, hogy a környezeti tényezők azonosítása és módosítása lehetségessé teszi azon személyek egészségének hatékonyabb védelmét, akiknél a genotípus vagy korábbi környezeti hatások hajlamosítanak a betegség kifejlődésére. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 650–657.

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Summary A working cultural assumption that makes any dialogue with the past possible is: features recalled with pride are apt to be safeguarded against erosion and vandalism; those that reflect shame may be ignored or expunged from the landscape. Unlike in the West where history seems to be more or less processed on the basis of working through the problematic, in Croatia - a representative of so-called countries in transition, strange and liminal monuments are being erected in order to signify collective cultural identity and bear witness of times past. There are two examples of crossing the lines between the division pride/shame: two monuments: one to Jure Francetih, and the other to Mile Budak - both convicted criminals of war. This paper argues some of the following topics: what is the point of resurrecting the past in such vein? Why does Croatia have the need to celebrate its dark side of history? Why are the butchers, the representatives of shame and crimes against humanity remembered with pride; at least among some Croatians, still powerful enough to erect a monument and place it in public? Is there something peculiar in Croatian history, or in histories of some Central European countries, that belongs to no other history(ies) and calls for bridging the gap between pride and shame? Is the Croatian collective past in fact past at all? Where is Croatia's place on the map of Europe with such signs of its present times? Using the American geographer Kenneth Foote's ideas and types of remembering (sanctification, obliteration, designation, rectification), the paper explores modes of representing the past and contextualizes them in a broader framework of establishing a productive communication with the present. Using the already mentioned examples and enriching them with a positive one - the example of The Holocaust Museum in Jasenovac, I first asses the current situation in Croatian cultural dialogue with the past (including both ethical and human poles of the binary) and then propose possible venues useful for establishing a constructive cultural dialogue within the newly emerged space of the European Union.

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Ha életünk során olyan helyzetbe kerülünk, hogy kénytelenek vagyunk szembesülni egészségünk elvesztésével, egy krónikus betegség mindennapjainkra gyakorolt irreverzibilis hatásával, az ennek következtében létrejövő változások egyaránt érintik személyiségünk kognitív, emocionális, fiziológiai, szociális és spirituális dimenzióit. A krónikus beteggé válással addigi világképünk megrendül, korábbi kognitív sémáink összeomlanak, és így elveszíthetjük azokat a tájékozódási pontokat, amelyek életünk korábbi szakaszaiban létünk biztonságát jelentették. A betegség ugyanakkor pozitív irányú változásokat is hozhat életünkbe azáltal, hogy lehetőséget ad például egy új életfilozófia és optimistább életszemlélet kialakítására, az élet nagyobb megbecsülésére és a megbocsátás átélésére. Az utóbbi évtizedek egészségpszichológiai és valláspszichológiai vizsgálatai alapján a krónikus beteggé válás traumáját követő, a fentiekben említett konstruktív megoldások szoros összefüggésben vannak életünk vallásos/spirituális dimenziójával. Jelen tanulmányban a szerző szakirodalmi adatok alapján áttekinti a vallás/spiritualitás és az egészség közti kapcsolat lehetséges hatótényezőit, néhány, a krónikus betegségek és a spiritualitás összefüggéseit leíró elméletet, és ezekhez kapcsolódó klinikai vizsgálatokból származó eredményt. Bemutatásra kerülnek továbbá olyan kutatások, amelyek a vallásnak/spiritualitásnak az orvos–beteg kapcsolatra gyakorolt hatását, az abban betöltött szerepét elemzik, és ezzel összefüggésben olyan vizsgálati eszközök, amelyek a páciensek vallási/spirituális elköteleződésének és gyakorlatának megismeréséhez nyújtanak gyakorlati segítséget.

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