Authors:Annik Fet, Ottar Michelsen, and Luitzen Boer
Green procurement is seen both as a public strategy to promote sustainable products and as a business strategy to improve environmental performance of the supply chain and thus meet demands for more environmentally friendly products, including from public institutions. Green Public Procurement (GPP) is a part of the national strategy for sustainable development in Norway, and it has become a national policy through legislation and various initiatives from the government. In addition to the implemented Acts, several other public initiatives are introduced, among other guidelines and action plans about how to integrate environmental and social responsibility in public procurement. The government has also presented a number of white papers relevant for green public purchasing. The documents stress the focus on environmental and ethical issues in public procurements. This paper gives an overview and the results from different surveys of how it is practiced on different levels. It further gives a short overview of how to meet the requirements by the use of environmental management systems and environmental product declarations. The paper ends with a suggestion for further research on how to approach GPP in a holistic and systematic way, addressing the often used statement that green procurement will be more costly.
This article comprises an examination of the basic macroeconomic capital structure from a corporate stand-point — based on capital structure theories and on an analytical framework of corporate finance. The ‘Trade-off Theory’ employed at the macro-level can be compared to the choice between the consumption-smoothing effect of external debt and the risk of bankruptcy, whilst the ‘Hierarchy Theory’ can be applied to the ‘pecking order’ of global capital flows. The ‘Free Cash Flow Theory’ emphasises the disciplining effect of external debt, significance of which has become more evident with the credit crisis and the IMF’s loan-package to Hungary. The macroeconomic capital structure shows that in respect to international investment, the debt-to-GDP ratio has been growing more rapidly over the last ten years, and due to the level of indebtedness, the conditions essential for sustainable development cannot survive. The authors attempt to show that this is the reason why an unbridgeable efficiency gap has appeared in the employment of external capital. Although domestic economic policy-makers are sure of their long-term ability to manage the ever-increasing external debt, it would be a mistake to overlook those macroeconomic anomalies which have brought about the widening of the efficiency gap.
This study aims to firstly develop a brief review of the creation and functioning of the European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC), highlighting the role of the EGTC in respect of its contribution to the harmonious development of the whole European Union through the strengthening of economic, social and territorial cohesion. The article highlights recent changes in EU legislation governing the EGTC and analyses the infl uence that there is in choosing the State where a Gro uping will be located, and the applicable law. Subsequently, the article outlines the contribution of those EGTCs — constituted by municipalities in Romania and Hungary — to regional sustainable development. Utilising a cross-border EGTC is a way of promoting of better neighbourliness, and stimulating balanced economic development and social stability by harnessing local resources and regional joint projects. At the end of the article I stress the need for cross-border cooperation between Romania and Hungary in developing services of general economic interest, as well as transport infrastructure and tourism.
The occurrence of Asian Financial Crisis and successive scandals highlight the importance of corporate governance on which the public start to stress. “Pursuing internationalization for sustainable development” has become a trend for corporate development in the future. Nonetheless, the promotion of internationalization enhances multiple operating environments and information complexity. An enterprise therefore has to adjust the existing organizational structure and construct favorable corporate governance mechanisms to timely reflect market demands and have the enterprise acquire the advantage of the economy of scale through overseas extension points. With the approach of globalization era, the extreme dependence of economic activities on import/export hastens Taiwan actively joining in World Trade Organization (WTO) to enhance the circulation of goods and resources among member states. Under such a trend, the industrial structure in Taiwan needs to be adjusted, and industries with competitiveness would present larger development space. Aiming at listed companies in Taiwan Stock Exchange, the research period is set 16 years, from 1999 to 2014. The research results conclude that 1. competition would affect corporate governance, 2. competition would influence corporate performance, and 3. corporate governance would affect corporate performance. The research results are expected to inspire international enterprises with the competition evaluation and corporate governance adjustment to promote the corporate performance.
The sustainable development of agricultural waste is nowadays a main strategy in producing neutral CO2 energy and metal removal technologies. In Egypt, large amounts of rice straw are annually burnt in the open air causing severe
air pollution that could be directed to co-firing and adsorption technologies. On bench scale, rice straw was positively contributed
in a clean and smokeless co-firing process with methanol due to the oxidizing effect of the alcohol. The co-firing temperature
control is vital to develop the adsorptive character of the residual ash and to avoid prolonged time needed to improve the
physical properties of the rice straw if applied directly as a biosorbent. The consumed methanol in the process ranges from
0.15 to 0.3 liter per each kg of straw depending on its compaction. The grossed heat value from such process may drive steam
generator for electricity. The residual ash was subsequently cross-linked in uranium and heavy metals adsorption tests from
solutions. The porous texture of the residual ash and the amorphous nature of the silica along with potassium content provide
a suitable condition for uranium immobilization especially if phosphorus or vanadium exist. The resulted chemical precipitate
is analogues in composition to meta-ankoleite (KUO2PO4·3H2O) or hydrated carnotite (K2(UO2)2V2O8)·1-3H2O respectively. The XRD data of the latter form show an enhancement in crystallinity of the amorphous precipitate with the