Authors:Amahjour Narjisse and Khamlichi Abdellatif
. Fundamentals settings associated with the FEM are first to be fixed by examining the model convergence in terms of the grid independence test, near wall treatment and the location of the border of the discretized finite domain of calculation. This paper
The structure of public water supply in Germany and the water resources used are briefly described. An overview over the legal requirements for drinking water is given, and the sources for contaminants are outlined. Then the multiple-barrier approach is discussed with respect to the resources groundwater and spring water, lake and reservoir water, and river water. Examples for treatment schemes are given and the principle of subsurface transport of river water as a first treatment step is described.
Authors:Mona M. Fawzy, Mohamed S. Kamar, and Gehad M. Saleh
). The measurement conditions were an accelerating voltage of 30 kV with a beam diameter of 1 μm for a counting time of 60–120 s and a minimum detectable weight concentration ranging from 0.1 to 1 wt%. Physical separation treatment for Abu Rusheid
One of the most complex cases for assessing the nuclear power plant safety is the evaluation of the response of the plant to an earthquake and calculation of the core damage frequency related with this. Plant level fragilities are convolved with the seismic hazard curves to obtain a set of doublets for the plant damage state. The standard methodology of the description of randomness and epistemic uncertainty of the fragility is based on the use of lognormal distribution. In the practice, because of large number and variety of types of components, variety of failure modes, further simplification is needed in spite of simplicity of the mathematic description of the fragility and its uncertainty. Sophisticated modeling and screening methods have to be applied for plant fragility development requiring enormous experience. Several practical assumptions utilized in the seismic PSA showing certain analogy with interval type description of uncertainties. In the paper an attempt is made for outlining some new options for nuclear power plant seismic fragility development based on the interval and p-box concept. The possibility for derivation of conditional probability of failure for cumulative absolute velocity is also highlighted.
Authors:E. Kovács, P. Tóth, Cs. Juhász, and J. TamáS
There are numerous biological agents including bacteria such as Brucella suis, B. abortus, Francisella tularensis, Burkholderia mallei, Coxiella burnetii, Yersina pestis, Bacillus anthracis and Chlamydia psittaci, viruses such as Variola major and V. minor, Flavivirus and Hantavirus, and toxins such as Botulinum toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, Staphylococcus enterotoxin B and Trichothecene mycotoxin reported to have potential to cause illness via water consumption. In the recent years, biological threat prevention for urban water supply systems has been of special interest worldwide, thus, protection against biological agents requires adequate knowledge, available water treatment technologies and preparedness. In this review, the history of biological threat via public water supply, as well as selected early detection methods, prevention strategies and risk assessment models are detailed.
Authors:Sulaiman Riza, Djasmir Marlinawati, and Mohamad Amran Mohd Fahmi
Segmentation is one of important methods in medical images processing, particularly as it allows images to be analysed. The method used for segmentation depends on the image problem to be resolved. In this research, knee cartilage needs to be segmented to determine the level of the Osteoarthritis (OA) and for further treatment. Knee cartilage is a soft hyline sponge that is located at the end of the femur, tibia and patella bone to release friction during movement. OA is a knee cartilage problem wherein there is a thinning of the cartilage that results in a shift especially happening between femur and tibia bone causing discomfort and pain. Thinning of the knee cartilage is due to many factors such as age, body weight, genetic, accident, sport injury and extreme use such as physical work. OA can occur to a male or female, child or adult. The effects experienced by patients with OA are such as difficulty to walk, limited movement, and pain in the thin cartilage areas. Monitoring of patients' condition needs to be done to help reduce the problem and thereby enable specialists to perform the appropriate treatment. Imaging is a method used today to monitor the condition of patients with OA. Previous studies showed that MRI is a suitable method for monitoring the condition of patients with OA because of its advantages in visualising knee cartilage more clearly than other imaging methods. Thus, for segmenting the knee cartilage which as mentioned before is an important process in medical images processing, the MR images were selected based on many factors. Segmentation in this study was aimed to obtain the cartilage region to diagnose patient OA level. Various segmentation techniques have been developed by researchers in segmenting the knee cartilage region but they have been unable to segment precisely due to the thin structure of the knee cartilage, especially for patients with intermediate and severe OA. COMSeg technique was developed to segment knee cartilage, especially for those experiencing a normal and intermediate OA and try to implement it to severe OA. The development of this new technique takes into account the imaging method used, the images feature obtained so it can be suitable to process knee image and then selection of an appropriate technique to be applied to the selected images as input.
Buildings are the largest consumers of energy, accounting for nearly 40% of all energy used. Therefore, an effective method of reducing energy consumption is to create and design more efficient buildings. In this paper details of a sustainable and green building design for a small residential home are presented. This design is unique in that it is built to Passive house standards, and using shipping containers. The structure will use four 20 ft. (6.1 m) high and one 40 ft. (12.2 m) high cube containers, with the four 20 ft. (6.1 m) making up the main floor and the 40 ft. (12.2 m) forming the second floor. The size is a modest 820 sq. ft. (76.2 m2) designed for a family with one or two children.
The goal for the building is to be as self-sufficient as possible which makes it ideally suited to an ‘off-grid’ rural setting. However, it can be adapted to be ‘on-grid’ as well. Solar energy will provide all the electricity needs through a photovoltaic battery system, and warm water with a solar water heater. The site will be water neutral by utilising rainwater harvesting and on site waste water treatment. The results from energy modelling, using HOT2000, are presented, as well as an in-depth analysis on different insulation types and strategies. Finally, a cost estimate exercise is conducted and results compared to other passive houses and traditional code compliance buildings.
Shell eggs have been irradiated with increasing radiation doses in the 0.5-3.0 kGy dose range and various non-microbiological changes, important from the point of view of consumer quality, have been estimated. Dose-dependent changes in the flow behaviour of egg white and brittleness of the yolk membrane in broken eggs, sensorial parameters of the raw and soft-boiled eggs, whippability and foam stability of the egg white were observed. Considering that a minimal dose of 1.5 kGy would be required for radiation inactivation of salmonellae and other, non-pathogenic bacteria, the quality of irradiated eggs upon such gamma radiation dose would not be equal in all parameters to those of the fresh shell eggs, however, changes in sensorial and functional properties at this dose level may be still acceptable, mainly for risk population and some industrial use.