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Scald (Rhynchosporium secalis; Rs) and spot blotch (Cochliobolus sativus; Cs) are important diseases of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) worldwide. Similar mechanisms and gene transcripts are assumed to be involved in the barley defense response since both these pathogens are necrotrophic fungi. In the current study, the transcriptome in leaves of the same barley genotype WI2291 inoculated with Rs and Cs was compared at different times postinoculation. Comparison of data for barley Rs- and Cs- inoculated plants with mockinoculated plants revealed gene expression changes that included basal defense transcripts and transcripts specific to the establishment of a necrotrophic interaction with associated fungi. During barley–pathogen interaction pathway, WI2291 activated a higher number of genes and pathways in response to Rs infection than in response to Cs invasion. However, families of genes encoding pectin-degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism enzymes, transporters and peptidases are expanded to cover Rs and Cs at an early stage following inoculation. Our results demonstrate differences in the pathways and activated genes of barely cv. WI291challenged by Rs and Cs, and that expression patterns of the same defenseassociated genes were altered in adaptation to different pathogens. Our work provides new insights into the underlying mechanisms related to regulation of different pathways in response to fungal infection.

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Abstract

Water availability is one of the major physiological factors influencing plant growth and development. An assessment study has been done at the Szent István University, Gödöllő to evaluate and identify the water footprint of protein yield of field crop species. Twelve field crop species (Sugar beet Beta vulgaris, spring and winter barley Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat Triticum aestivum, maize Zea mays, sunflower Helianthus annuus, peas Pisum sativum, potato Solanum tuberosum, alfalfa Medicago sativa, oilseed rape Brassica napus, rye Secale cereale and oats Avena sativa) were involved in the study. Evapotranspiration patterns of the crops studied have been identified by the regular agroclimatology methodology and physiologically reliable protein ranges within crop yields were evaluated.

The results obtained suggest, that water footprint of cereals proved to be the lowest, however maize values were highly affected by the high variability of protein yield. Oilseed crops had considerably high protein yield with medium water efficiency. Alfalfa, potato and sugar beet water footprints were in accordance with their evapotranspiration patterns.

Protein based water footprint assessment seems to be more applicable in crop species evaluations than that of yield based methodologies.

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Research of cereal glycoproteins is important for understanding of their functional properties, their role during technological processing of cereals and it can serve as a valuable tool for the detection of cereal allergens. The main intention of this study was the screening of profile of water-soluble glycoproteins present in barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat durum (Triticum durum) and spelt (Triticum spelta). Lectin monolithic HPLC column was used for rapid and effective enrichment of glycoprotein fractions. Captured glycoproteins were electrophoretically separated and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Presented procedure resulted in identification of a group of N-glycoprotein candidates with affinity to lectin concanavalin A (ConA). Such molecules could have, among others, an allergenic potential. Majority of captured low-molecular-weight glycoproteins belong to alpha amylase/trypsin inhibitors family. However, most of the higher-molecular-weight proteins identified in lectin bound fractions have not been described as glycoproteins yet. Obtained results improved the knowledge about (glyco)protein content in cereal grain. The connection of lectin HPLC-GE-MS was proved as a convenient strategy for identification of cereal glycoproteins. Suggested method is universal and can be applied for various cereals and food-stuffs.

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The hordein proteins of ten barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars grown in region of eastern Croatia were studied for their contribution to the malting quality, particularly relating hordein influence on malt extract yield. The analysis of hordein proteins was carried out by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The micromalting of investigated barley cultivars and malt analyses were done according to the EBC official methods. The quantitative analysis of hordein proteins has showed that B-hordein was major component, followed by C- and D-hordeins. Among investigated cultivars the malt extract yield varied from 76.8% (cv. Angora) to 82.6% (cv. Scarlett). Spring barleys had on the average higher malt extract yield in contrast to winter barleys. The significant negative correlation between the total hordein content and malt extract yield was found. Among hordein fractions the B-hordein and D-hordein significantly contributed to lower malt extract yield. RP-HPLC analysis of malt hordeins revealed that the amount of hordein degraded during malting significantly correlated with Kolbach index.

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mannitol pretreatment in anther and microspore culture of Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Igri. J. Plant Physiol. 148: 696–700. Heidekamp F. The interaction of 2,4-D application and mannitol

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algériai nyersfoszfát és a szuperfoszfát hatásának vizsgálata V. A talajtulajdonságok és a foszfortrágyák hatása tavaszi árpa (Hordeum vulgare) Cd-, Cr-, Co-, Ni-, Sr-, Mn-, Al-és Mo-koncentrációjára tenyészedény-kísérletben (Investigation of the effect of

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Összefoglalás

A tápanyag-gazdálkodás továbbfejlesztéséhez szükséges a növények tápláltsági állapotát jól jellemző, valamint a várható terméssel minél megbízhatóbb kapcsolatot mutató tápelem-koncentrációk megállapítása. Ismert, hogy a kálium számos életfolyamat nélkülözhetetlen eleme a növény életében.

Dolgozatunk célja, hogy összefüggést keressünk a kijuttatott kezelések és a növény tápláltsági állapota között.

Tenyészedényes kísérletünket 2006 tavaszán üvegházi körülmények között állítottuk be agyagbemosódásos barna erdőtalajon. Tesztnövénynek a tavaszi árpa (Hordeum vulgare L.) Scarlett fajtáját választottuk. A trágyázatlan kontrollon kívül nyolc NPK kezelést alkalmaztunk két NP szinten növekvő K-adagokkal. Különböző fejlettségi stádiumokban, fő növényi részenként folytattunk vizsgálatokat.

A legmagasabb K-koncentráció a bokrosodáskori növényekben mutatható ki, az általunk kijuttatott kezelések hatására mért legmagasabb K-koncentráció 6,6% volt, melyet az N2P2K3 kezelésnél kaptunk. A virágzó kalász K-tartalma a trágyázástól függetlenül közel azonosnak bizonyult, 0,81–0,90% közé esik. A K0 kezelések kivételével az általunk mért K-koncentrációk a kielégítő, ill. magas kategóriába esnek. Az összefüggés-vizsgálatok eredményei igazolják, hogy szoros kapcsolat van a növény K-tartalma és száraztömeg gyarapodása között. A különböző adagú és arányú kezelések erősen befolyásolják, hogy az egyes növényi részek különböző fejlettségi stádiumokban mekkora mennyiségben és milyen eloszlásban tartalmazzák a felvett K-ot, hogyan alakul száraztömegük, víztartalmuk.

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A pot experiment was designed to study the colonization of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) host plant. Soils of the pots were collected from a long-term field microelement loading experiment on calcareous chernozem soil twelve years after 13 heavy metals (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn) were applied once in four doses (0, 30, 90 and 270 mg element·kg -1 d.w.). The biomass production and element accumulation of the host plant, the various colonization values of the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) – such as colonization intensity (M %), arbusculum richness (A %) in the root system and the sporulation intensity (g -1 dry soil) in the rhizosphere – were measured. When considering the twelve-year adaptation process of the AM fungal populations at the various metal loads, a relatively balanced inside mycorrhiza colonization was found, suggesting the potentials for the selection of tolerant fungi in metal contaminated soils. The balanced infection intensity (M %) of the AM fungi and their common strategies with the host plant have resulted a nonsignificant shoot and root biomass production of barley in general. Mycorrhiza sporulation in the root system proved to be much variable and indicated the toxicity of metals and metal rates. Cd, Pb and Sr elements significantly reduced spore numbers, while a value of 34 spores·g -1 soil was counted in the case of Ni in comparison to the control’s 22 spores·g -1 soil value. Stress-defending strategies of the fungal–plant symbiosis, such as the increased arbusculum richness (A %) could be established for the Hg and Pb rates. In the case of Cd an increased root biomass production became a tool for stress alleviation and reduced the metal allocation towards the shoots. Mycorrhiza fungi are part of the common plant–microbe interactions and appropriate defending mechanisms in metal contaminated soils.

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Until the 1950s plant nutrition consisted of the application of farmyard manure as part of the within-farm nutritive cycle. As production intensified, artificial fertilizers quickly gained a dominant role. The appearance of environmental damage and the rise in production costs raised the question of the wider application of organic manures. To face this challenge a series of experiments was performed, to examine the possibility of reusing sewage sludge and slaughterhouse waste compost, taking into account the costs and environmental regulations. At the premises of Beta-Research Ltd. in Sopronhorpács a 2-year plot experiment with 2 factors and 4 repetitions in randomly arranged blocks was carried out in 2000 and 2001. The experimental plant was sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera Alef.) in the first year and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the second year. The aim of the experiment was to examine the effect of sewage sludge and slaughterhouse waste compost on plant growth and internal parameters and to determine the optimal and unfavourable rates of these manures from the agricultural point of view. Evaluating the data it was found that the treatments caused statistically significant (LSD5%) differences in yield, sugar content, retrievable sugar content, sugar yield, a-amino-nitrogen and potassium content and recoverability quotient compared to the control. An analysis of the experimental results demonstrated that 25-50 t/ha sewage sludge application could be recommended under the given field conditions, while compost could be applied at a rate of 150-200 t/ha without any danger of damaging the plants. Several further factors, such as soil, human and animal hygiene and plant nutrition, must also be considered if safe application is to be achieved in the long term.

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A pot experiment was designed to study the variability of some inside and outside mycorrhizosphere characteristics of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the potential transfer of Cd, Ni and Pb in a metal-contaminated calcareous chernozem soil. Substrates of the pots were taken from a long-term field experiment site at Nagyhörcsök, Hungary, where the cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) were spiked as single salt application at four levels (0, 30, 90 and 270 mg kg−1 dry soil) 12 years prior to this study. Beside the biomass production and element content of plants, the total catabolic enzyme activity measured by fluorescein diacetate analysis (FDA) and the colonization parameters of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF); the infection intensity (M%) and the arbusculum richness (A%) were determined. After 12 years, the indigenous mycorrhiza fungi in the soils might be adapted to the contaminated environments, as a function of metals and their applied doses. Stress-defense strategies of the fungal-plant symbiosis, such as the better functioning of the AMF by enhanced arbusculum richness or by the improved phosphore-mobilization capacity was found mainly at the middle (90 mg kg−1) doses of metals. Increasing quantity of Cd above the maximum permitted concentration in the soil could enhance the biomass production of barley roots and reduce the Cd translocation towards the shoots. Outside rhizosphere parameters as the FDA enzymatic activity were stronger influenced by the long-term metal stress, than the inside mycorrhiza colonization, showing the protecting effect of the symbiosis both for the macro- and microsymbionts. Mycorrhizosphere conditions are part of the common plant-microbe strategies and plant-defending mechanisms that can result in a better stress-alleviation at chronic metal-exposures.

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