On the basis of Croato-Glagolitic documents found in Hungary and parts of Ivan Bercic's fragments, the paper intends to describe the effect Latin texts had on Old Church Slavonic texts in Croatian edition translated from Latin. This impact can be characterized as 1) external (on the outward appearance of the codex sheet, especially on the shape of letters) or 2) linguistic (on the vocabulary, grammar, and style). In terms of the way this influence is exerted, one can distinguish between 1) direct (individual) influence (the impact of a certain passage on the corresponding part of the translated text) or 2) indirect (cumulative) influence (a joint effect of identical phenomena-occurring in various Latin texts-on several Croato-Glagolitic passages, independently of the given passage). Direct influence is exemplified by identical initials, most cases of poetic usage of synonyms, in grammar by participium instans, and negative direct influence is apparent when a passage of the Bible is translated incorrectly. Cumulative influence is present in most initials taken from Latin, in poetic usage of synonyms beyond the given Latin text, and in the recurring use of Latin liturgical terms and their calques in the rubrics. The impact of the Latin original has a mainly positive and enriching character. At the same time, harmful effects are quite rare.
Batch equilibrium measurements were conducted at 25±2 °C with a granular resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin to determine the distribution coefficients (Kd) for cesium. In the tests, Hanford Site actual waste sample containing radioactive cesium (137Cs) and a pretreated waste sample that was spiked with non-radioactive 133Cs were used. Initial concentrations of non-radioactive cesium in the waste sample were varied to generate an equilibrium isotherm for cesium. Majority of the tests were conducted at 25±2 °C using a liquid to solid phase ratio of 100 ml/g and at a contact time of 72 hours. Two additional tests were conducted at a liquid to solid phase ratio of 10 and at contact time of 120 hours. The measured distribution coefficient (Kd) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) was 948 ml/g, the Kdfor non-radioactive cesium (133Cs) was 1039 ml/g. The Kdfor nonradioactive cesium decreased from 1039 to 691 ml/g with increased initial cesium concentration from 8 to 64 g/ml. Very little change of the Kdwas observed at initial cesium concentration above 64 g/ml. The maximum sorption capacity for cesium on granular RF resin was 1.17 mmole/g dry resin. This value was calculated from the fit of the equilibrium isotherm data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Previously, a total capacity of 2.84 mmole/g was calculated by Bibler and Wallace for air-dried RF resin.
The short survey concerns the discovery of adsorbents and the measurement of the adsorptivity. In the investigation of adsorption
very sensitive instruments are needed, developed only recently. Two methods, however, are very old: the volumetric and the
gravimetric measurement of the adsorbed amount. In the Bible we find a thorough description of a volumetric adsorption experiment.
The systematic research began in 1773 when Scheele, Fontana and Priestley observed the adsorption of air by charcoal. The
volumetric apparatus of Brunauer, Emmett and Teller set the prototype for many instruments devoted to measure adsorption isotherms.
The first gravimetric adsorption measuring instruments were hygrometers, described by Nicholas of Cues in 1450, Alberti and
Leonardo da Vinci. In 1833 Talabot installed 39 drying balances in a Lyon laboratory for humidity control of raw silk imported
from China. In 1912 Emich described an electronic beam microbalance to investigate adsorption and a coil spring balance. Today
isotherms are measured gravimetrically by means of electro-dynamically compensating microbalances. Also oscillating systems
are being used which allow weighing down to the zeptogram region.
This article is an attempt to compare the dramas by Slovakian and Hungarian dramatists. As an introduction a very brief issue throws light upon the Slovakian and Hungarian literary relations, which were the course of coexistence of two nations in the united state field. The outstanding Slovakian poet of the last quarter of the 19th century Pavol Ország-Hviezdoslav admired Hungarian culture and literature. In 1905 he translated into Slovakian “The Tragedy of Man” by Imre Madách and a few years later he wrote his own philosophical drama “Herodes and Herodias”, what made possible to follow some parallels between these works. At first sight there isn't much in common, however what makes them similar are some philosophical subjects such as the Bible motives, interest in history and human moral problems. At the same time the article deals with genre of these works (dramatical poem, philosophical drama, symbolical poem). The analysis of two dramas makes reasonable to confirm that between them there are typological and contact relations which are the part of the general Slovakian and Hungarian cultural context.
The present paper outlines a historical change in Hungarian syntax by focusing on participial constructions and their clausal equivalents in ten different Hungarian translations of the Bible. The first part investigates the relative frequency of the relevant structures and, relying upon statistical data, it characterises the process of a shift from analytic to synthetic constructions. Then we analyse secondary semantic differences among the various structures (participial constructions, subordinate clauses and coordinate clauses) and propose that in the case of subordination the semantic relationship between the matrix sentence and the dependent clause is expressed in an explicit manner. However, if the meaning of the related participial construction is complex (combining features of temporal, causal, and instrumental relationships), a subordinate clause can express only one of these, and the other features are not represented in it. Coordination, on the other hand, especially asyndetic (conjunctionless) coordination and that involving the conjunctions és, s ‘and’, is more capable of embracing several shades of meaning. Thus, in terms of their semantic properties, coordinate clauses are more similar to participial constructions than subordinate clauses are. Finally, the paper raises some general ideas with respect to the theoretical background of this kind of shift in sentence construction. The framework of the study is what is called “traditional grammar”, but it also introduces some terms of functional grammar.
In this survey of the most important exhibitions of art historical interest the following exhibitions and (if published, also with the indication of their texts or summaries in an other language then Hungarian) their catalogues are reviewed. History and its Images, the Relationships between Past and Art in Hungary – Hungarian National Gallery/Budapest Images of Hungarian History – Historical Gallery of the Hungarian National Museum/Budapest Medieval History in the Mirror of Seals. Medieval Seals of Esztergom – Cathedral Treasury/Esztergom Cult and Relics of Hungarian Saints – Christian Museum/Esztergom The Center of Europe around 1000 (an international exhibition) – Hungarian National Museum/Budapest „Basilica grandis et famosa‘ The Provostry Church of the Holy Virgin (stone carvings of the medieval royal Provostry of Székesfehárvár) – Museum of King St. Stephan/Székesfehárvár Three Codexes (the Csatár-Admont Bible, the Hungarian Angevin Legendary and the Psalter of Bishop Urban Nagylucsei) – Széchényi National Library/Budapest The Centuries of the Royal Palace in Buda – Historical Museum of Budapest/Budapest The House of the Nation, Parliament Plans for Buda-Pest, 1784–1884 – Museum of Fine Arts/Budapest Guardians of Hungay's Heritage. József Könyöky's and Viktor Myskovszky's evaluations of historic monuments (late 19th century) – National Office for Historical Monuments/Budapest Treasures of the Applied Arts in Hungary – An hommage to the donors – Museum of Applied Arts/Budapest Intuition, Innovation, Invention. Scientific and technical discoveries, artistic innovations from Hungary – Exhibitions Hall/Budapest Images of Time – Museum of Ethnography/ Budapest
In 1539, a peculiar Latin-Hungarian (more precisely: Hungarian-Latin) grammar was published by Johannes Sylvester, dedicating the grammar (probably symbolically) to his son. Unfortunately enough, his grammar got lost in the war-stricken times of the first half of the 16th century. At the end of the 18th century, however, it was found again and then republished. Being lost, the grammar in question could not influence the grammarians of Sylvester’s age.The “discovery” of the mother tongues in Europe, the birth of a new spirituality (Reformation) and the compelling drive to translate the Bible into vernaculars were the unmistakable signs of the first linguistic revolution.The grammar actually is a contrastive analysis of Latin, Greek and a lesser degree German, Hebrew and Hungarian. What is more interesting, its deals with structure and not with single word comparisons. Sylvester was the first in Europe to articulate the basic difference between the chief European languages (Latin, [Ancient] Greek, German and the non-European Hebrew) and Hungarian revealing that Hungarian is of postpositional character; so he was the first in Europe to discover agglutination as the basic feature of Hungarian (though he was not familiar with this term). Among other things, he casually mentions the relationship of Hebrew (the “lingua sancta”) to Hungarian, as was the linguistic trend of his age.
Baking bells (or baking lids) were actually very simple ovens that were suitable for baking bread, meat and fish. This method of food preparation was practiced since prehistory in the Mediterranean world and we can find descriptions of baking bells in the Bible and in the works of the writers of antiquity. This individual mode of baking bread became especially widespread during late antiquity. In some regions, the use of baking bells survived either owing to a general stagnation (as in the Balkans or the Alpine lands), or to unusual living conditions (as in the Roman military camps of the Augustan period and in the medieval Ottoman-period border forts in Hungary). Their increasingly frequent use in late antiquity was a reflection of economic decline and the disappearance of urban bakeries. At the same time, the adoption of baking bells by the Barbarian peoples (such as the Avars and the ancient Hungarians) settling on the fringes of the Mediterranean world can be seen as a cultural advance and the adoption of local traditions. Baking bells were still used in the Carpathian Basin as late as the 19th century and they can be found in some areas of the Balkans even today.
Authors:Людмила В. Братухина and Александр Ю. Братухин
The paper is devoted to analyzing examples of the use of constructions “O + locative”, which have the meaning of “basis of activity, instrument”. Our interest in these examples is due, firstly, to the fact that this meaning of the preposition O is completely absent in modern Russian. Secondly, in some cases, this construction found in Old Slavonic texts is replaced in Church Slavonic by the construction “ВЪ + locative”, which is a calque from the ancient Greek construction “έν + dative” (often having the meaning of “a tool”) but this substitution is inconsistent. Thirdly, the constructions “O + locative” and “BЪ + locative” appear in the Old Slavonic manuscripts in parallel. The main aim of the study is to identify the shades of meaning that the creators of Old Slavonic texts distinguished in the ancient Greek construction “έν + dative”, choosing “O + locative” as a variant of translation; and to determine whether the indicated meaning of the preposition O was original in the Slavic languages or this preposition was acquired in the process of translating Biblical texts.
The research is based on the Sinai Psalter, the Zographic and Ostromir Gospels, the Ostroh and Elizabethan Bibles as well as the examples (contained in the dictionaries of the Old Slavic, Old Russian, and Church Slavonic languages) from the Mariinsky Four Gospels, Assemaniev’s Gospel, Savin’s book, Euchology of Sinai, and Supralsky manuscript.
The construction “έν + dative” is translated not only by “O + locative”. The former is also regularly translated by constructions of the instrumental case without a preposition (in Old Slavonic and Church Slavonic texts). The possibility of forming of the meaning of the action source under the influence of the construction “OTЪ + genitive” is also considered. In general, the dynamics of evolution of the meaning of “O + locative” is traced in the paper. It is concluded that the analyzed “O + locative” construction acquired the meaning of “basis of activity, instrument” at the time of the creation of Old Slavonic Bible translations. This is due to the process of reflection on the text, which became possible with the appearance of the written Slavonic language and the comparison of this construction with a simple instrumental case, combinations of “OTЪ + genitive” and “BЪ + locative”, which in some cases acted as synonymous and could be chosen by translators either spontaneously or with the aim to express nuances of meaning. This is demonstrated with the elimination of ancient Greek tracing, as well as the reverse replacement of “O + locative” by “BЪ + locative”. The instrumental case without a preposition was similar to “O + locative” in the expression of the causal meaning as well as in indicating the source of the action; the con- struction of “OTЪ + genitive”, in addition to the similarity of meaning, in terms of spelling and phonetics also resembled “O + locative”. The construction “O + locative” turned out to be more stable in the cases of indicating an animate source or basis of activity.