In every European language we find a great number of phraseological units of biblical origin, but each language has its own peculiarities in adopting these units. At the same time the text of the Bible has its own phraseological system too, which is obviously different from the systems inherited by the European languages. This approach gives us the way to obtain relevant results in diachronic research. The practical application of this method is presented in the analysis of the origin of the idiom
under the open sky
I collected stories of conversion from university students in Kolozsvár/Cluj. They had come into contact with representatives of the revival movement and constructed their own identities under the influence of the identity patterns conveyed by these people. The conversion means that their relationship with God becomes personal in that they accept salvation from sin for themselves, declare themselves to be the children of God and place their lives under His guidance. This goes together with a new way of life involving daily reading and interpretation of the Bible, impromptu personal prayers and participation in charity work. In the stories of conversion they speak about this new identity and the process through which they changed their identities. Parallel with the restructuring of the individual identity the collective identity also changes since, from the time of their conversion, they regard themselves as members of the community and the activity of the community extends to all fields of life: Bible hours, religious services, sports, summer camps, film club, etc.
The subject of the paper is a folk prayer, a German popular text, which was collected by Zsuzsanna Erdélyi from a Swabian woman in Hungary. The prayer is a modern textual version of late medieval ars moriendi. It can be regarded as a folk prayer as it was in use among the common people, but its authorship cannot be linked to the common people. The author might have been a person from the lower clergy, with profound knowledge of theology and the Bible. This religious text satisfied a spiritual need among the people, as it was read out by the bed of the dying person, thus assisting the soul in reaching heaven. If the dying person recited it, or if it was read out to him, the prayer promised delivery from sin and automatic salvation without clerical mediation. No wonder such prayers were disapproved of and even banned by the Church.
In the late 1930s several “peasant ecclesiola” formed around two Calvinist peasant prophetesses in Sub-Carpathia, a region that came under fi rst Czechoslovak, then successively Hungarian, Ukrainian and Soviet rule as a consequence of the Trianon peace dictate. One group functioned between 1937–1977 under the leadership of Mariska Borku (Tiszaágtelek, 1910–1978). Over a period of 40 years Mariska Borku wrote the “Words”, under the inspiration of Jesus Christ or the Holy Spirit. Her manuscript called the Lettszövetség (Third Testament) was regarded by the prophetess and her followers as sacred and seen as a continuation of the Bible. They disseminated it in handwritten copies and used it in religious services held in homes and for private devotions.The other prophetess, Borbála Szanyi Mikó (Nagydobrony, 1897–1950) organised a smaller, closed prayer group around herself, composed mainly of relatives. She too wrote down the “Words” she received in visions, in her Örökkévaló Evangélium (Eternal Gospel).
The first chronicles of Central Europe were written in the beginning of 12th century. The authors of these chronicles lived in the courts of the princes or kings, and wrote their chronicle to support the idea of princely or royal courts about their own legitimacy. They used also the dynastic myths and some elements from the general tradition of the community about the past (oral history). They wrote differently about the origins, but there were common in the adaptation of the stories from the Bibles. The article focuses on the question how the Christian chroniclers wrote the pagan past; how the negative attitude to the pagan habits was mixed with the glorious events of the community in the pagan past.
In the works of Nabokov there is a combination
of scryptography of symbols that the writer uses in an ambivalent
way-playing with them (in the high, psychologic sense of the play
also as ritual) and exploiting them as polygenetic symbols with different
referent sources (Jewish Bible, Egypt, New Testament, antiquity, Dante,
Cabala, alchemy, freemasonry). The article shows in a parallel investigation
of the Russian and the English texts of the short story how the fantastique
way from a museum in France to the native town of the hero, to Russia,
due to the broad variety of intertextual allusions, motives and invariants
of Nabokov's oeuvre can be understood as a ritual transition through
the “underworld” to an “other world”.
During the Roman Empire, when an autonomous Etruscan culture had disappeared long ago, aspects of the old Etruscan religion were still surviving and had been integrated in the Roman traditional religion: the haruspices, acting as diviners for public or private purposes all over the Roman empire, could interpret prodigies, what Roman priests and even augurs did not. When, with the Christians, a new religion arrived which risked to overthrow the old national religion of the Romans, Etruscan religious tradition played an important role against the rise of Christianity: with the sacred books of the Etruscans, with the prophets who were alleged to have created the Etruscan religious tradition, the Romans could find in their own heritage what could match the Bible of the Christians or their prophets. Unsurprisingly, haruspices were active in the resistance movement against the new religion.
-11 August, 4281, p. 21.
VERKHOVSKY, Aleksandr 1999: The Church and the national radicals. In: Russkaja Mysl', 5-11 August, 4281, p. 20-21.
BADALANOVA, Florentina 1999: The Bulgarian Folk Bible. In: Zhivaja starina , 2, pp
The Psalter (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Cod. Guelf. 39 Aug. 4º) of Beatrice of Aragon, the wife of King Matthias Corvinus, often features in research literature on account of its title-page and ornate binding. The title-page (fol. 13r) was long attributed to Francesco del Cherico, but for some time now it has been ascribed to Francesco Rosselli and his collaborator, the Maestro dell'Iliade Medicea, while the binding is attributed – after Anthony Hobson – to Felice Feliciano. There are written documents to prove that both Francesco Rosselli and Felice Feliciano visited Hungary, both in the late 1470s, in1480 the latest. That Rosselli painted the Psalter title-page in Buda cannot be proven, although the arguments proposed by Edina Zsupán – the Hungarian saints in the calendar, the crudeness of the parchment – may suggest it. However, not only the title-page but six other pages of the Psalm-book are illumined (foll. 43r, 59v, 76v, 94r, 115v, 135v, 155v). These pages so far ignored by research literature are not Francesco Rosselli's works, being in completely different style. Their illuminator was presumably one of the North Italian masters who illumined for Hungarian clients several manuscripts in Buda around1480 and later, among whom only one is known by name(Franciscus Kastello Ithallico de Mediolano). He used cold, bright colours, the faces of the figures are markedly modelled, the drapery has a metallic hardness. One of the ruling motifs of the marginal decoration is the cornucopia. This hand cannot be identified at present in any manuscript whose provenience was Buda; its closest relative is a single Italian illumination in the Corvinus Gradual(National Széchényi Library, Cod. Lat. 424, fol. 7r). The master of the ornate binding of the Psalter – as Marianne Rozsondai has established – was the binder of the 14th century Bible kept in Erlangen (Universitätsbibliothek, Ms. 6) which also features of portrait of King Matthias. Important roles are played on both bindings by the leather filigree arabesques and the embossed all'antica motifs. The hand of the master making the gilded Corvina bindings can also be discerned on the Bible binding. So it seems that these two luxurious manuscripts completed around 1480 had an important – maybe even model-giving – role in the history of the evolving royal library, the Bibliotheca Corvina.