A fast pneumatic transfer facility was installed in Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) of the University of Texas
at Austin for the purpose of cyclic thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis. In this study efforts were focused
on the evaluation of cyclic epithermal neutron activation analysis (CENAA). Various NIST and CANMET certified materials were
analyzed by the system. Experiment results showed 110Ag with its 25 s half-life as one of the isotopes favored by the system. Thus, the system was put into practical application
in identifying silver in metallic ores. Comparison of sliver concentrations as determined by CENAA in CANMET certified reference
materials gave very good results.
An automated delayed neutron counting (DNC) system has been developed at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) to enhance
nuclear forensics capabilities pertaining to special nuclear material analysis. The system utilises the SLOWPOKE-2 Facility
at RMC as a neutron source and 3He detectors. System control and data acquisition occur through a LabVIEW platform. The time dependent count rate of the delayed
neutron production has been examined for 235U, using certified reference materials. Experimental validation according to ISO 17025 protocols suggests typical errors and
precision of −3.6 and 3.1%, respectively, and a detection limit of 0.26 μg 235U.
The knowledge of the chemical forms of metals is used to assess their availability and uptake by plants, and in sediments the forms of metals determine their transport and mobility in the aquatic media. This information may be obtained by determining chemical forms of metals (speciation) or different phases in which the metals are bound, obtained by applying extraction schemes. The analytical methods used include different steps and all of them must be validated. We report here the recommendations to minimize the errors in this kind of analysis. For validation the use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) and the participation in interlaboratory exercises are highly recommended.
Authors:C. B. Zamboni, L. C. Oliveira, L. Dalaqua Jr, and J. Mesa
Neutron activation analysis technique, using Au as flux monitor, was applied to determine element concentrations of Ca, K,
Na, Mg, Mn and Sr in certified reference material (NIST 1400 Bone Ash). The results were compared with those using comparative
INAA and they were compatible. The same results were obtained using the recommended k0 factors, in order to obtain the activation cross section as input in concentration for the same reference material. Some
applications in the health area aiming clinical evaluation in bone samples of medium and small-sized animals were performed
and the viability of using this methodology was discussed.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Sun-Ha Kim, Jong-Hwa Moon, Hark-Rho Kim, Jong-Myoung Lim, and Jin-Hong Lee
For air pollution monitoring, about 1300 airborne particulate matter samples were collected by using a low volume air sampler
and a polycarbonate filter at two sampling sites in an urban region, Daejeon, the middle of Korea from 2003 to 2006. Mass
concentrations of the black carbon were measured using a smoke stain reflectometer. The concentrations of 24 elements in the
collected samples were analyzed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and its temporal trends and enrichment
factors were investigated under different environmental conditions. Analytical control was carried out by using certified
Authors:E.J. França, E.A. De Nadai Fernandes, and M.A. Bacchi
A Ni-Cr alloy was chosen as an in-house reference material for neutron flux measurement due to the well-known physical constants of the nuclides or interest and its low cost. The quantification of the Cr and Ni content was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), using certified reference materials from NIST as comparators. The concertrations and standard combined uncertainties were 19.32 ± 0.07 % for Cr and 80.2 ± 1.1 % for Ni, and the material is very homogeneous for Cr and moderate homogeneous for Ni.
Authors:H. Polkowska-Motrenko, R. Dybczyński, B. Danko, and D. Becker
A very accurate and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of Co and Ni in biological materials has been elaborated. The method is based on radiochemical neutron activation. Irradiation of samples in Cd-shielded channel of a nuclear reactor assures balanced activity ratio of58Co and60Co isotopes and favourable detection limits for both nickel and cobalt. Column chromatography (ion exchange and extraction) has been used for the quantitative and selective isolation of the determined radionuclides. High accuracy of the method has been demonstrated by the analysis of several certified reference materials.
Authors:A. Montero, J. Estévez, R. Padilla, and D. López
A study was carried out in Havana City using lichen as monitor of air pollution. The concentration of several trace elements
(Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb) in a total of 225 samples was determined by Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (TRXRF),
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV). In addition several Biological Certified
Reference Materials (CRM’s) were analyzed in order to assess the analytical performance of the results. In general a relatively
good agreement was found among the techniques. No significant differences were found between the obtained results and the
certified reference values.
Authors:Sanjukta Kumar, Shailaja Pandey, and Sangita Kumar
A method has been developed for the analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) in kimberlite samples using inductively coupled
plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The samples were dissolved using sodium peroxide fusion and after appropriate dilutions the solutions were analyzed
using ICP-MS. The paper presents the concentration of rare-earth elements as determined by ICP-MS in eight kimberlite samples
from Central India. The method was validated using certified reference materials STSD-1 and STSD-2 from Canadian Certified
Reference Material Project. The method detection limit of various REEs varies from 0.12 to 1.54 mg kg−1. The total REE concentrations range from 418 to 726 mg kg−1 and fall within the interval of those reported in the literature for kimberlites. Despite the marked difference in the REE
contents, all the analyzed samples show similar REE patterns that resemble those for kimberlites. In order to compare ICP-MS
results, the samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis which is a reference method for determination
of REEs in geological samples.
Authors:H. Bounouira, A. Choukri, R. Cherkaoui, A. Gaudry, R. Delmas, C. Mariet, O. Hakam, and S. Chakiri
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled
plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were used for the determination of major and trace elements in sediment samples
of the Bouregreg river (Morocco). The reliability of the results was checked, by using IAEA Soil-7 certified reference material.
Results obtained by the three techniques were compared to control digestions efficiencies. A general good agreement was found
between INAA and both ICP-MS and ICP-AES after alkaline fusion (ICPf). The ICP-MS technique used after acid attack (ICPa)
was satisfactory for a few elements. A principal component analysis (PCA) has been used for analyzing the variability of concentrations,
and defining the most influential sites with respect to the general variation trends. Three groups of elements could be distinguished.
For these groups a normalization of concentrations to the central element concentration (that means Mn, Si or Al) is proposed.