Authors:A. Qawasmeh, C. Bourke, S. Lee, M. Gray, W. Wheatley, N. J. Sucher, and A. Raman
Profiles of volatile secondary metabolites (VSM) in Mediterranean and Continental Festuca arundinacea, either endophyte free or infected with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum strain AR542, were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The profile of VSM in the endophyte-free Mediterranean F. arundinacea germplasm was similar to that of endophyte-free Continental F. arundinacea germplasm. However, the VSM profile in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea was different to that in AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Compound 1, identified as N-acetylnorloline, was detected in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea as being sevenfold greater compared with its level in AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Levels of compounds 2, 4, and 5 detected in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea were significantly lower when compared with their levels in the AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Levels of compound 3 were similar in both germplasms infected with endophyte strain AR542. The levels of compounds 2, 4, and 5 but not compound 3 were different between AR542 infected and endophyte free depending on germplasm. On the basis of the mass spectra obtained, compounds 2, 3, 4, and 5 were identified as tridecanoic acid methyl ester, n-capric acid, 11, 14, 17-eicosatrienoic acid, and linoleic acid ethyl ester, respectively. Our results highlight key differences between the Mediterranean and Continental germplasms. Comparison of the VSM of AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea with AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea showed that there are quantitative differences between the two germplasms. These differences, which may impact on grazing systems involving horses, most probably arose as a result of intrinsic genetic differences between the two germplasms and are yet to be indentified.
We study the structure of two contrasting alpine forest.pasture ecotones located in the Central Pyrenees (sites Ordesa and Tessó). We define ecotone structure as the spatial distribution of trees of different size classes and growth-forms, and the relationship between these aspects and the spatial distribution of understory vegetation and substrate. The studied ecotones are dominated by Pinus uncinata and have been little affected by recent anthropogenic disturbances (logging, grazing). One rectangular plot (30 x 140 m2) was located within each site encompassing treeline and timberline with its longest side parallel to the slope. The distribution of size and growth-form classes at Ordesa followed a clear sequence of increasing size downslope, from shrubby krummholz individuals to bigger arborescent trees. At Ordesa, regeneration was concentrated near the krummholz area and over rocky substrates. At Tessó, regeneration was abundant above the treeline, where the cover of the dominant understory shrub (Rhododendron ferrugineum) decreased. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis of tree and plant cover data, with respect to spatial location in the ecotone and substrate cover, demonstrated that elevation was an important factor controlling the distribution of trees and understory plants in both ecotones. Finally, k-means clustering with spatial constraint revealed abrupt spatial clusters along the slope at Ordesa. However, the ecotone at site Tessó was composed of elongated downslope spatial clusters suggesting greater spatial heterogeneity and subtle gradual changes due to other factors in addition to the altitudinal gradient (snow avalanches). These contrasting structures correspond well with the ecotone (sharp boundary, Ordesa) and ecocline (gradual transition, Tessó) concepts. This suggests the dominant role of different local environmental factors: wind at site Ordesa and avalanches at Tessó. Positive feedbacks, like facilitation among P. uncinata individuals (nurse effect), may maintain and intensify the sharpness of the ecotone at Ordesa.
All over the world, rural communities developed mainly stable and sustainable, traditional (extensive) land use systems to manage natural resources. Resource management and related traditional ecological knowledge based on understanding of the functioning of the ecosystem help local communities to maintain important resources, like forests. Forest plays an important socio-economic role in the life of rural communities. Wood is one of the most elemental raw materials used in households, but its non-timber benefits play just as important a role.
We examined sustainable use of forests in a Csángó community in Gyimes region (Eastern Carpathians, Romania), providing insights into attitudes within folk forestry towards natural resources, driving forces, and changes in human relations with the forest.
Wood as a raw material is a resource that largely determines the daily life of the Csángó community, while non-timber products (e.g., forest grazing, forest fruits, herbs) play a complementary, yet important role in Gyimes life. The survey of forest flora and vegetation confirms that Gyimes farmers are familiar with the plant species that reach significant coverage in the canopy, shrub and herbaceous layers, they are well versed in the forest types occurring in the landscape, their dynamics, their most characteristic stages in the succession after felling. Overuse is an undisputed and acknowledged part of the forest-management, threatens social-ecological system-flexibility. As long as natural systems are able to renew themselves (forests can regenerate), there is chance for the further use of this important resource and in a broader context there is chance for the survival of the local community as well.
Changing countryside, society and culture. Contribution to the ethnology of the Bodrogköz region of NE Hungary in the 19th–20th centuries
. Bodrogköz is a historical region comprising some fifty settlements divided by the redrawing of the borders after the First World War: the northern part is now in the territory of Slovakia and the southern part in Hungary. The appearance of the countryside bordered by the Tisza, Bodrog and Latorca rivers was substantially changed by the deforestation and later, between 1845 and 1890, by the regulation of the rivers and flood control measures. The essay examines how the transformation of the landscape influenced the historical processes of peasant farming, the society and culture. Under its influence the earlier difference between the flood plains and the flood-free levels ceased to exist and there was a considerable overall increase in the proportion of ploughland. However, there was a marked decline in the area of grazing land that had provided the fodder for the earlier extensive livestock farming. With considerable differences between villages, the structure of peasant farms shifted towards keeping cattle in barns and in agriculture the role of fodder production greatly increased. The changes percolated through peasant society very slowly: a substantial part of the population continued to farm on infertile land. Many people sought prosperity in America and used the money earned there to buy land in their Bodrogköz settlements. The hierarchy of settlements in the region was also greatly altered by the transformation of the countryside. However, the region as a whole remained disadvantaged and the development of its society is still contradictory even today.
Authors:Sándor Hoffmann, Gábor Csitári, László Bankó, and Júlianna Balázs
., Dexter, M., Perrott, K.W. (2003): Hot water extractable carbon in soils: a sensitive measurement for determining impacts of fertilization, grazing and cultivation. Soil Biol. Biochem., 35, 1231–1243.
. — Tsai J.: 2006a. Effect of different agronomical measures on yield and quality of autumn saved herbage during winter grazing 1
communication: Yield and digestibility of organic matter. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 51,5. 205–213 pp
This study was carried out to compare composition, density and diversity of species between dryland and irrigated agroecosystems and between agroecosystems and the marginal grassland ecosystem in dry tropics. Main management characteristics of these ecosystems are: (1) Dryland cropping, low fertilizer input, rainfed (no irrigation) and seed sown rice; (2) Irrigated cropping, high fertilizer, water (irrigation) inputs, flooded rice by transplanting; (3) Grassland, post-rainy season herbage removal and light grazing. All ecosystems showed comparable number (12-14) of species in winter, but in the rainy season higher number of species (21) were recorded in the grassland ecosystem. The species composition of the grassland was entirely different from both agroecosystems (similarity <1%). Dryland and irrigated agroecosystems showed only 25% and 38% similarity with each other during winter and rainy cropping seasons, respectively. Occurrence of few grasses (e.g., Cynodon dactylon, Dichanthium annulatum and Sporobolus diander) in the agroecosystems depends on the propagules dispersed from the marginal grassland. The change from dryland to irrigated agroecosystem involved elimination of 4-5 species during both cropping seasons and simultaneous recruitment of 2 new species in winter and 6 species in rainy season. In both agroecosystems, forbs (C_ type) dominated over graminoids (C_ type) during winter season but the dominance was reversed during the warm, rainy season. During winter some forbs were abundant in both agroecosystems due to their tolerance to widely varying moisture conditions (e.g.,Chenopodium album), others were dominant in either drier soil conditions (e.g., Anagallis arvensis in dryland) or wet conditions (e.g., Melilotus indica and Phalaris minor in irrigated). Higher species diversity occurred in the grassland relative to both agroecosystems. The seasonal trends of species diversity and species evenness were broadly similar in both agroecosystems but irrigated agroecosystem exhibited relatively higher species diversity. The changes in species composition and species diversity in agroecosystems are mainly attributed to differences in water management. The water management in irrigated agroecosystem tends to reduce weed diversity but leads to the dominance of some potentially noxious weeds (e.g., Phalaris minor).