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All over the world, rural communities developed mainly stable and sustainable, traditional (extensive) land use systems to manage natural resources. Resource management and related traditional ecological knowledge based on understanding of the functioning of the ecosystem help local communities to maintain important resources, like forests. Forest plays an important socio-economic role in the life of rural communities. Wood is one of the most elemental raw materials used in households, but its non-timber benefits play just as important a role.

We examined sustainable use of forests in a Csángó community in Gyimes region (Eastern Carpathians, Romania), providing insights into attitudes within folk forestry towards natural resources, driving forces, and changes in human relations with the forest.

Wood as a raw material is a resource that largely determines the daily life of the Csángó community, while non-timber products (e.g., forest grazing, forest fruits, herbs) play a complementary, yet important role in Gyimes life. The survey of forest flora and vegetation confirms that Gyimes farmers are familiar with the plant species that reach significant coverage in the canopy, shrub and herbaceous layers, they are well versed in the forest types occurring in the landscape, their dynamics, their most characteristic stages in the succession after felling. Overuse is an undisputed and acknowledged part of the forest-management, threatens social-ecological system-flexibility. As long as natural systems are able to renew themselves (forests can regenerate), there is chance for the further use of this important resource and in a broader context there is chance for the survival of the local community as well.

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Summary

Profiles of volatile secondary metabolites (VSM) in Mediterranean and Continental Festuca arundinacea, either endophyte free or infected with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum strain AR542, were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The profile of VSM in the endophyte-free Mediterranean F. arundinacea germplasm was similar to that of endophyte-free Continental F. arundinacea germplasm. However, the VSM profile in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea was different to that in AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Compound 1, identified as N-acetylnorloline, was detected in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea as being sevenfold greater compared with its level in AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Levels of compounds 2, 4, and 5 detected in AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea were significantly lower when compared with their levels in the AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea. Levels of compound 3 were similar in both germplasms infected with endophyte strain AR542. The levels of compounds 2, 4, and 5 but not compound 3 were different between AR542 infected and endophyte free depending on germplasm. On the basis of the mass spectra obtained, compounds 2, 3, 4, and 5 were identified as tridecanoic acid methyl ester, n-capric acid, 11, 14, 17-eicosatrienoic acid, and linoleic acid ethyl ester, respectively. Our results highlight key differences between the Mediterranean and Continental germplasms. Comparison of the VSM of AR542-infected Mediterranean F. arundinacea with AR542-infected Continental F. arundinacea showed that there are quantitative differences between the two germplasms. These differences, which may impact on grazing systems involving horses, most probably arose as a result of intrinsic genetic differences between the two germplasms and are yet to be indentified.

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Competing species often coexist, but the mechanisms allowing long-term coexistence are rarely tested via direct experimental manipulation. We experimentally tested the mechanisms of coexistence in a classic model system, laboratory microcosms in which two species of ciliate protists competed for bacteria. Previous work shows that the species used here compete for bacteria, but can coexist despite large differences in grazing ability. We tested three hypotheses that might explain this surprising coexistence: resource partitioning, chemically-mediated interference competition, and differential use of space. To test for resource partitioning, we conducted an experiment testing the effects of bacterial species richness and composition on the long-term outcome of competition. Manipulating bacterial diversity and composition alters the scope for resource partitioning. Despite strong evidence for differential resource use (e.g., the two ciliates shifted bacterial species composition in different ways), initial bacterial richness and composition did not affect the long-term outcome of competition. Remarkably, the competitive outcome was unchanged even when ciliates competed for a single bacterial species, indicating that the observed resource partitioning is irrelevant to the competitive outcome. In further experiments, we ruled out differential space use and chemically-mediated interference competition as explanations for this surprising coexistence. Coexistence of ciliates on a single bacterial species might reflect partitioning of intraspecific bacterial diversity, and/or osmotrophy or consumption of particulate detritus by the weaker competitor. The results show that this classic model system is not as well-understood as had been previously thought. More broadly, the results dramatically illustrate that merely observing “niche differences” between coexisting species is no evidence that those differences are either necessary or sufficient for long-term coexistence.

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Over millions of years there is a long-term increase in species richness, accompanied by substantial turnover in species composition. However, little is known about species temporal turnover over shorter, ecologically relevant time periods, such as years. In the present study, we examine the inter-annual temporal turnover in species composition in 100 m2 plots of the herbaceous layer in a submediterranean oak woodland over six years. We found that approximately half of the accumulated number of species over the six years is accommodated as temporal turnover. We also found that species temporal turnover in undisturbed control plots was not significantly different from that in plots where vegetation was recovering naturally without assistance, i.e., plots undergoing ecological succession. Only in the most disturbed (continuously overgrazed) plots temporal turnover was low to non-existent. We therefore suggest that diversity estimates based on a single year of observations may seriously underestimate species richness or the detrimental effects of disturbance, at least at the 100 m2 scale. Furthermore, we found that, with the exception of the heavily grazed plots, short-lived species (annuals and biennials) did not display significantly greater temporal turnover than long-lived (perennial) species. Our analysis also supports that the space for time substitution applies in the patterns of species turnover. Spatial species turnover was comparable to temporal turnover. Species that are observed in many plots are also present in many years, and vice versa. Also, the similarity in species composition decreased as the time period between observations increased, as is the case with distance decay. Overall we conclude that the patterns of species turnover in time resemble those in space, and thus temporal turnover makes an important contribution to total biodiversity that should not be ignored.

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grasslands under grazed and non-grazed conditions in Tierra del Fuego. J. Veg. Sci. 12: 385-390. Vertical structure of wet grasslands under grazed and non-grazed conditions in Tierra del Fuego J. Veg

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properties in grazed pastures — Soil Science Society of America Journal vol. 53 784–789 pp. Marx D.B. Spatial variability of soil chemical properties in grazed pastures

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., Dexter, M., Perrott, K.W. (2003): Hot water extractable carbon in soils: a sensitive measurement for determining impacts of fertilization, grazing and cultivation. Soil Biol. Biochem., 35, 1231–1243. Perrott K

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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors: József Andor, Dóra Boronkai, Éva Páli, Margit Daczi, Олег ФЕДОСОВ, Melita Aleksa, Kevin McKenna, Hrisztalina Hrisztova-Gotthardt, and Péter Barta

. Graz: Grazer Linguistische Monographien 10. 135–146. Harnish R. M. Linguistics with a Human Face: Festschrift für Norman Denison zum 70. Geburstag 1995 T

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. — Tsai J.: 2006a. Effect of different agronomical measures on yield and quality of autumn saved herbage during winter grazing 1 st communication: Yield and digestibility of organic matter. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 51,5. 205–213 pp

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Bread is baked from the crushed (or ground) seeds of grain. Around 10,000 years ago people cooked porridge or gruel and at least 3000 years ago leavened the dough of bread. In Europe, north of the Alps, it was only from the 16th century that the consumption of bread (and porridge) spread widely. Urban population concentrations grew, while yields fell due to the climatic deterioration. Greater areas of land were ploughed for grain cultivation and, independently of the quality of flour improved as a result of technical innovations in milling. The main factors for the dominance of grain were given. In regions where little was produced due to the natural endowments, such as the Mediterranean, bread grain was imported from Antiquity (Panem et circenses!). In mediaeval Europe nutrition was still characterised by the consumption of meat and vegetables (mainly cabbage). The balance tilted in the towns where the predominance of cereals can be observed. North-western Europe imported grain from the Baltic region. Up to the 18th century Eastern Central Europe exported beef cattle to the towns of Central Europe. As the demand for grain grew grazing land was ploughed and in the 19th century the country exported grain. Cereal consumption took the forms mainly of porridge, griddle-cakes, and later bread, dumplings and various kinds of boiled noodles. At the same time the role of soups (hot pots) in the daily diet increased. Bread and soup marked a new era in the history of menus. The people of Eastern Europe are still porridge-eaters. Almost from the start brewing has been one of the technologies for cereal consumption. Beer, with an increasing alcohol content, was at first the drink of urban dwellers, but later after the Middle Ages the peasantry also drank increasing quantities of ever stronger beer. Together with this latter process, grain spirits (whisky, gin, vodka, etc.) were also drunk on a growing scale. Distillation was an Arab invention and spread in the monasteries from the Middle Ages. At first Aqua vitae was a medicine but later shifted to the profane sphere in almost all respects.

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