Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis was applied for the analysis of hair. The hair samples were digested in a mixture of nitric and perchloric acid and the heavy metals were precipitated with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. The accuracy, precision and recovery of the method for the elements Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were evaluated through the analysis of a standard hair sample. The procedure was applied to the analysis of hair from an occupationally exposed group of Sudanese workers and a control group. The hair of the exposed group showed a range of 80–550 ppm Fe, 6–12 ppm Cu, 57–190 ppm Zn and 70–3700 ppm Pb, while that of the control group had a range of 60–310 ppm Fe, 7–22 ppm Cu, 89–170 ppm Zn and 3–17 ppm Pb.
Authors:Ribeiro Guevara S, A. Rizzo, R. Sánchez, and M. Arribére
Heavy metal profiles of short sediment cores sampled from lakes located in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Northern Patagonia, Argentina, were determined by INAA. Core dating was performed by measuring natural 210Pb and anthropogenic 137Cs, and by identification of tephra layers. No evidence was found for the input increase of the trace elements Sb, Ba, Cs, Zn, Co, Hf, Ni, Se, Sr, Ti, U, and V in the lake environment. High As concentrations (up to 250 μg . g-1) were found in relation with the diffusion processes of Mn and Fe oxides. Strong correlation was observed between the Br concentration and organic matter content, but no evidence was found for the relevant increase of Br inputs in recent years. Ag concentrations were found to be enriched in the upper core layers over the baseline values determined for deep layers ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 μg . g-1. Hg concentration profiles were also enriched in the upper core layers over the baseline (from less than 0.07 to 0.2 μg . g-1 for pre-industrial time, to 0.1 to 0.3 μg . g-1 for modern times) but in relation with the increased organic matter content of the sediment.
the field experiments carried out in 2000 and 2001 at the Nagyhörcsök Experimental
Station on calcareous chernozem soil contaminated with heavy metals the results
show that the application of 40 t/ha Balinka brown coal did not decrease the uptake
of essential elements by the maize, barley and rape test plants, and did not
decrease the fertility of soil. There was no change or sometimes a slight
increase in the investigated tissues of the plants due to the effect of coal application.
This is advantageous in Zn deficient soils, but on similar soils strongly
polluted with Zn the Balinka brown coal cannot be used as an effective
remediator. The coal treatment drastically decreased the Se toxicity of the soil,
the maxi-mum yield could even be obtained on the strongly Se-polluted plots. The
development of plant stands in the coal treated plots improved considerably,
perhaps due to the better moisture regime conditions of the soil. The Sr and Cd
content in plant tissues decreased in several cases due to brown coal application.
The most dangerous contaminant, the Cd concentration in the plants dropped to
half or even 1/3, as a result of coal treatment. The results of the two-year experiments showed
that the 40 t/ha rate of Balinka brown coal can be used successfully and
economically in the
remediation of Cd, Se and Sr contaminated
soils. This rate does not influence the original fertility parameters of the
soil, but can be applied with advantages both in extremely light- or heavy
textured soils in case of moderate contamination. However, further investigations
are needed to find out the effects of Balinka-type brown coal application on
other soil types, plants and other polluting elements.
Heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) were estimated in water, soil sediments and shoots of the predominant wild plants at certain locations of main drains in Giza (El-Moheet, El-Lebeny, Nahea and Kafr Hakeem) and Cairo (El-Massara sites 1, 2, 3). Heavy metal concentrations were higher in soil than in water, where these contents in either of them were not crossing the threshold of permissible levels, with the exception of Fe which showed substantial concentrations in water and soil sediments, especially at certain drain sites. Heavy metal accumulation was evident in plant shoots at different sites. An interesting result was the potential accumulation of Fe in shoots of Cyperus spp. (C. alopecuroides, C. dives, C. rotundus), Eichhornia crassipes, Eremopoa persica and Phragmites australis to limits exceeding those in soil. Other plant species also showed high abilities to hyperaccumulate one or more of the elements under study at certain locations. Endogenous polyamines (PAs): putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine showed enhanced levels with increase of heavy metal contents in plant shoots. In this instance the highest positive correlation was shown by Spd followed by Put. Correlation coefficients for total heavy metal contents and total PAs showed tight positive relation. This rule was obvious but not always consistent with respect to the correlation between the contents of total heavy metals and glutathione (GSH) or the lipid peroxidation product malon-di-aldehyde (MDA). Recovery of Eichhornia crassipes plants collected from El-Moheet, El-Lebeny, and El-Massara (3) drain sites, showed decreases in the levels of GSH and MDA after 6 days in a pool of renewal fresh water, whereby inconsistent changes were recorded after 12 days.