Authors:Wubiao Zhu, Zhengjie Liu, Lei Chen, and Yunhui Dong
Sorption of U(VI) from aqueous solution to Na-attapulgite was investigated at different experimental chemistry conditions
by using batch technique. The attapulgite sample was characterized by FTIR and XRD. Sorption of U(VI) on attapulgite was strongly
dependent on pH and ionic strength. The sorption of U(VI) on attapulgite increased quickly with rising pH at pH < 6, and decreased
with increasing pH at pH > 7. The presence of humic acid (HA) enhanced the sorption of U(VI) on attapulgite obviously at low
pH because of the strong complexation of surface adsorbed HA with U(VI) on attapulgite surface. Sorption of U(VI) on attapulgite
was mainly dominated by ion exchange and/or outer-sphere surface complexation at low pH values, whereas the sorption was attributed
to the inner-sphere surface complexation or precipitation at high pH values. The sorption increased with increasing temperature
and the thermodynamic parameters calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms suggested that the sorption
of U(VI) on attapulgite was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results indicate that attapulgite is a very suitable
material for the preconcentration of U(VI) ions from large volumes of aqueous solutions.
This study of photodegradation of the antibiotic chloromycetin (Cm) in aqueous solution by direct and indirect photolysis
included photolysis under UV-C light (λ = 254 nm) and photo-oxidation under UV–vis light (λ ≥ 365 nm) in the presence of iron
and humic acid. The factors affecting Cm degradation were studied and are described in detail, including initial pH, ionic
strength and initial concentrations of iron and humic acid. Results showed that a degradation efficiency up to 90% was achieved
by direct photolysis of Cm at pH 5–7 and the calculated quantum yield was 0.084. Higher salt content (NaCl, 0.01–0.5 M) was
found to benefit direct photolysis. Indirect photolysis of Cm in the presence of iron(III) formed OH• radicals at pH ~ 3. Under UV–vis light, increased pH resulted in a significant decrease in the efficiency of indirect photolysis.
Direct and indirect photolysis reactions both followed a pseudo first-order kinetic law. Humic acid tended to inhibit the
photodegradation of Cm under the conditions of this work, implying that photosensitization of humic acid did not play any
role in the photodegradation.
Authors:Xuemei Ren, Suowei Wang, Shitong Yang, and Jiaxing Li
The sorption of U(VI) from aqueous solution on MX-80 bentonite was studied as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength,
solid contents, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and temperature under ambient conditions using batch technique. The results
indicate that sorption of U(VI) on MX-80 bentonite is strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The removal of U(VI) to
MX-80 bentonite is rather quick and the kinetic sorption data is simulated well by a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The
presence of HA enhances the sorption of U(VI) on MX-80 bentonite obviously, but the influence of FA on U(VI) sorption is not
obvious. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH0, ΔS0, and ΔG0) for the sorption of U(VI) calculated from temperature dependent sorption suggest that the sorption reaction is endothermic
Authors:Donglin Zhao, Shubin Yang, Shaohua Chen, Zhiqiang Guo, and Xin Yang
In this study, the adsorption of U(VI) from aqueous solution on Na-rectorite was studied as a function of various environmental
conditions such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, soil humic acid (HA)/fulvic acid (FA), solid contents, and temperature
under ambient conditions by using batch technique. The kinetic adsorption is fitted by the pseudo-second-order model very
well. The adsorption of U(VI) on Na-rectorite was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. A positive effect of HA/FA
on U(VI) adsorption was found at low pH, whereas a negative effect was observed at high pH. The presence of HA/FA enhanced
the U(VI) adsorption at low pH values, but reduced U(VI) adsorption at high pH. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH0, ΔS0, and ΔG0) were also calculated from the temperature dependent adsorption isotherms, and the results suggested that the adsorption
of U(VI) on Na-rectorite was a spontaneous and endothermic process.
Authors:D. Das, P. Pathak, S. Kumar, and V. Manchanda
Sorption behavior of 241Am (~10−9 M) on naturally occurring mineral pyrite (particle size: ≤70 μm) has been studied under varying conditions of pH (2–11),
and ionic strength (0.01–1.0 M (NaClO4)). The effects of humic acid (2 mg/L), other complexing anions (1 × 10−4 M CO32−, SO42−, C2O42− and PO43−), di- and trivalent metal ions (1 × 10−3 M Mg2+, Ca2+ and Nd3+) on sorption behavior of Am3+ at a fixed ionic strength (I = 0.10 M (NaClO4)) have been studied. The sorption of 241Am on pyrite increased with pH from 2.8 (84%) to 8.1 (97%). The sorption of 241Am decreased with ionic strength at low pH values (2 ≤ pH ≤ 4), but was insensitive in the pH range of 4–10, suggesting the
formation of outer-sphere complexes on pyrite surface at lower pH, and inner-sphere complexes at higher pH values. The sorption
of 241Am increased in the presence of (i) humic acid (5 < pH < 7.5), and (ii) C2O42− (2 < pH < 3). By contrast, other complexing anions such as (carbonate, phosphate, and sulphate) showed negligible influence
on 241Am sorption. The presence of Mg2+, Ca2+ ions showed marginal effect on the sorption profile of 241Am; while the presence of Nd3+ ion suppressed its sorption significantly under the conditions of present study. The sorption of 241Am on pyrite decreased with increased temperature indicating an exothermic process.
A radiotracer method, initially developed to analyze migration from retail plastic food packaging into food simulants, has been developed to assess the measurement of inorganic contaminants migrating from recycled paper and board into real food. This new radiotracer method has been applied to the study of 10 food samples and their corresponding recycled paper and board packaging. Samples of paper and board were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 1.26 . 1016n m-2 . s-1 for 15 hours to activate elements of interest. After a decay period of 10 days the paper and board was placed in contact with the corresponding foodstuff. The food was analyzed for any radioactivity migrating from the packaging by gamma-ray spectrometry. Samples were analyzed regularly during the 90 days contact time. Detection limits for the determination of migration was as low as a few µg/kg in the food. Results from the migration study have shown that, of the 60 elements measured, only Zn and Fe were detected in food, at concentrations of 0.012-0.25, and 0.045-0.11 mg/kg, respectively. This was despite the recycled paper and board samples being highly elevated in many other elements such as Cr (0.9-15.1 mg/kg) and Ba (3.3-75.4 mg/kg). The level of migration of Zn and Fe into food from packaging was insignificant compared to the UK recommended daily allowances of 15 mg, and, therefore, represented no hazard to human health.