the Japanese name “SOUSEI” (meaning innovation or creation) and for the string “CREAT” for creative. The phrase CRIS BLDG had to be combined with logical NOT with (ii) in order to exclude references merely to the CRIS Building that also houses
The aim of this study is to reveal the research growth, the distribution of research productivity and impact of genetic engineering
research in Japan, Korea and Taiwan by taking patent bibliometrics approach. This study uses quantitative methods adopt from
bibliometrics to analyze the patents granted to Japan, Korea and Taiwan by United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)
from 1991 to 2002. In addition to patent and citation count, Bradford’s Law is applied to identify core assignees in genetic
engineering. Patent coupling approach is taken to further analyze the patents granted to the core assignees to enclose the
correlations among the core assignees.
13,055 genetic engineering patents were granted during the period of 1991 to 2002. Japan, Korea and Taiwan own 841 patents
and Japan owns most of them. 270 assignees shared 841 patents and 16 core assignees are identified by the Bradford’s Law.
18,490 patents were cited by the 13,055 patents and 1,146 out of the 18,490 cited patents were granted to Japan, Korea and
Taiwan. The results show Japan performs best in productivity and research impact among three countries. The core assignees
are also Japan based institutions and four technical clusters are identified by patent coupling.
muscle actin (α-SMA) (Invitrogen, Life Technologies Japan Ltd., Japan; ready-to-use) and desmin (Dako; diluted 1:100). Antigen retrieval was performed via heating in 10 mm sodium citrate acid-buffered solution at 121 °C for 15 min. IHC was conducted using
The isotopic ratios of129I/127I in cattle thyroid glands collected from various areas of Japan were measured by neutron activation analysis with combustion pre-treatment. Pig and human thyroid glands were also analyzed by the same method. The iodine isotopic ratio in cattle thyroid glands in Japan is comparable with that observed in Europe. The isotopic ratio in human thyroid glands in Japan is remarkably lower than that in Europe, which has been reported to be comparable to that of cattle. The isotopic ratio in pig thyroid glands is also lower than that in cattle.
Authors:Y. Minai, U. Tsunogai, H. Takahashi, J. Ishibashi, R. Matsumoto, and T. Tominaga
Eighteen trace elements, including seven rare earth elements (REEs), and major and minor elements in the sediment samples from the Japan Sea and the northwestern Pacific near Japan were determined with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Most REE patterns (chondrite-nomalized) of the sediments were nearly identical to the patterns of terrigenous materials without cerium anomaly whereas the La/Yb ratio varied with the site locations. The variation of the La/Yb ratio of the sediments may indicate the regional variation of the mixing proportion of the terrigenous materials from the continent to the materials from the volcanic island arcs including the Japanese islands. The Th/Sc ratio of the sediments tended to increase with distance from the island-arc volcanism. Regional variation of the Th/Sc ratio may indicate variation of amount of the continental terrigenous materials supplied to the sediments.
The purpose of this paper is to study the referee systems of foreign scientific journals in the field of life sciences preferred by Japanese researchers. This survey has been conducted in response to the need of Japanese authors for current information about the refereeing systems of foreign life science journals. Based on questionnaire data obtained from 29 journal editors, this paper describes the refereeing systems. This survey showed that most Japanese researchers in the field of life sciences tried to submit their papers to prestigious foreign journals with a higher rejection rate. There was a high correlation between the rejection rate and the impact factor in the field of biochemistry and molecular biology.
Tritium concentrations were determined for sea-water samples collected from the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean. In the Japan Sea, it was recognized that tritium was distributed around 2000 m in depth. This means that the vertical mixing of water mass is taking place. On the other hand, in the Pacific Ocean, the tritium concentration appears to reach zero at about 1000 m although more than 1 TU concentration are detected for samples collected from deeper water. Hypothetical origins of tritium in the deep water in the Pacific Ocean are discussed.
Mercury contents in head hair of 58 dentists employed at the NUSD hospital and 50 dentists employed at the private hospitals or clinics were determined using neutron activation analysis. The arithmetic means were 5.8 ppm and 5.2 ppm, and geometric means were 5.4 ppm and 4.8 ppm, respectively. They were much lower than the values reported in the past year, and agreed well with those of normal Japanese men of the same age. Therefore, it was concluded that the mercury pollution in the working environment of dentists might be practically non-existent in Japan today.
Plutonium was determined in monthly atmospheric deposition samples from 2000 to the end of 2003 collected at Tsukuba, Japan,
together with monthly thorium deposition. Monthly 239,240Pu and thorium depositions showed a typical seasonal variation with a maximum in spring. The 230Th/232Th activity ratios in the deposition samples differed from that of surface soils near Tsukuba. These results reveal that a
significant part of the 239,240Pu deposition observed in Japan is attributable to resuspension of deposited plutonium originating from the East Asian continent
deserts and arid areas.
Authors:M. Yamamoto, K. Shiraishi, K. Komura, and K. Ueno
Diet samples were collected by a duplicate portion study of Japanese adults in two districts, a newly-rising town and an established seaside village, of Ishikawa Prefecture, which faces the Sea of Japan. Uranium concentrations in a total of 80 diet samples were determined by -spectrometry after chemical separation. No marked differences between the two districts were found regarding characteristics of food consumption in thirteen categories and in daily intake of238U per person. The daily intake of238U per person ranged from 1.1 to 40 mBq with a geometric mean value of 9.6±2.1 mBq. The234U/238U activity ratios ranged from 0.7–1.5, with most being from 1.0–1.2. The internal dose estimation system (IDES) was completed with Japanese physical parameters and other parameters of ICRP Publication 30, and then the annaul effective dose equivalent was estimated as 3·10–7 Sv for238U in a Japanese adult.