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Plant secondary metabolites anthocyanins are considered to play a protective role. In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), anthocyanins can be observed in both adult plants and seedlings. The aim of the current study was to investigate the putative role of anthocyanins present in grains and shoots with respect to the protection of seedlings against drought. For this purpose a set of near isogenic lines (NILs) differing in pericarp and coleoptile colour was used. Water stress was created by artificial shortage of moisture under laboratory conditions. Differences among the lines were observed in a way that the lines with dark-purple grains and coleoptiles (genotype Pp-D1Pp-D1Pp3Pp3Rc-A1Rc-A1Rc-D1Rc-D1) demonstrated a higher seedling drought tolerance than plants with uncoloured pericarp and lightpurple coleoptiles (pp-D1pp-D1pp3pp3Rc-A1Rc-A1rc-D1rc-D1). Furthermore, protection of the root system and the shoot was related with the presence of anthocyanins in grains and coleoptiles, respectively.

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Elemental concentration in each tissue of Japanese morning-glory (Pharbitis nil) during the growth was analyzed by INAA. Plants were grown in water culture for 4 days under 12-hour light and 12-hour dark condition. During the growth, 10 plants in the same developmental stage were periodically harvested. Then the plants were separated into 9 tissues to determine elemental concentration and water content. There was an elemental specific profile within the plant tissue, for example, Na and K concentrations were high in root whereas Mg and Ca concentrations were high at the upper part of the plants. Among the elements studied, Ca and Mg showed rhythmical change in concentration, increased during the day and decreased during the night. This tendency was especially noted at shoot apex. However, water content in all of the tissue was increased about 6 hours prior to the light period and showed maximum in the middle of the light period. About 6 hour difference of water content movement to those of Ca and Mg concentration suggested that water movement drives more dynamic change of each elemental concentration within a plant.

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Four complexes of the nuclear structure NiII–ZnII were prepared with bis-N,N′-(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine (LH2), bis-N,N′-(salicylidene)-2,2′-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine (LDMH2) and the reduced derivatives of these Schiff bases, bis-N,N′-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,3-propanediamine (LHH2), bis-N,N′-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-2,2′-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine (LDMHH2). The complexes were characterized using IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric methods. The stoichiometry of the complex molecules were found to be NiL·ZnCl2·(DMF)2, NiLDM·ZnCl2·(DMF)2, NiLH·ZnCl2·(DMF)2 and NiLDMH·ZnCl2·(DMF)2. The molecular models of the complexes prepared with the reduced Schiff bases were determined according to the X-ray diffraction method. It is seen that in these complexes Ni(II) is in octahedral and Zn(II) is in tetrahedral coordination sphere. Ni(II) ion is coordinated between two nitrogen and two oxygen donors of the ligand and oxygen donors of the two DMF molecules. Zn(II) ion on the other hand is coordinated between two oxygen of the organic ligand forming two μ bonds. It also coordinates two Cl ions. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the complex NiLDMH·ZnCl2·(DMF)2 containing methyl groups is more stable than the other complex NiLH·ZnCl2·(DMF)2 containing reduced Schiff base. The coordinative DMF molecules in NiLDMH·ZnCl2·(DMF)2 were thermally cleaved. However, the cleavage of DMF molecules NiLH·ZnCl2·(DMF)2 resulted in the thermal degradation of the complex. In order to explain the TG data of the ligands were titrated in non-aqueous medium and their basicity strengths were determined. It was found that the basicity of the ligands containing two methyl groups were stronger. It is understood that the two methyl groups increase the negative charge density on nitrogen causing an increase in complex stability.

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Abstract  

The complexes Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxaldehyde were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared and UV spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, magnetic susceptibility, thermal gravimetric analysis, conductivity and also solubility measurements in water, methanol and DMF solution at 298 K. They are polycrystalline compounds with various formula and different ratio of metal ion:ligand. Their formula are following: [MnL2(H2O)](NO3)2·2H2O, [CoL2](NO3)2·3H2O, [NiL2](NO3)2·3H2O, [CuL2](NO3)2·H2O and [ZnL3](NO3)2, where L = C10H6O3. The coordination of metal ions is through oxygen atoms present in 4-position of γ-pyrone ring and of aldehyde group of ligand. Chelates of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) obey Curie–Weiss law and they are high-spin complexes with the weak ligand fields. The thermal stability of analyzed complexes was studied in air at 293–1,173 K. On the basis of the thermoanalytical curves, it appears that thermal stability of anhydrous analysed chelates changed following: Cu (423 K) < Zn (438 K) ~ Co (440 K) < Ni (468 K). The gaseous products of thermal decomposition of those compounds in air atmosphere are following: CO2, CO, NO2, N2O, hydrocarbons and in case of hydrates also water. The molar conductance data confirm that the all studied complexes are 1:2 electrolytes in DMF solution.

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.) Christie, Nils (2004): Büntetésipar . Osiris Kiadó, Budapest. Clark, Ramsey (1972): Bűnözés Amerikában . Kossuth Könyvkiadó, Budapest. Dér Mária (1992): A fiatalkorúak pártfogó felügyeletéről

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] Andrica , D. and Călugăreanu , G. , A nil-clean 2 × 2 matrix over integers which is not clean , J. Algebra Appl. , 13 ( 6 ), ( 2014 ), 9 pages. [3

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319 330 Wei, J. C. , Certain rings whose simple singular modules are nil -injective, Turk. J. Math. , 32 (2008), 393

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Katalin Vágási, Péter Degrell, István Késői, Tibor Kovács, István Pintér, Béla Molnár, Judit Cseh, Judit Nagy, and István Wittmann

Kakuk Gy.: „Nil nocere!”-fitoterápia által okozott nephropathia. Orv. Hetil., 2000, 141 , 2555–2558. Kakuk Gy. „Nil nocere!”-fitoterápia által okozott nephropathia

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.11/24.89 – – [NiL 2 ]Cl 2 ·2H 2 O 42.81/42.99 5.26/5.19 15.86/15.67 13.08/13.13 Diamagnetic [CuL 2 ] 2 Cl 4 ·3

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or cultural protest?, Nils-Arvid BRINGÉUS (ed.): Religion in Everyday Life . Papers given at a symposium in Stockholm 1993, (= Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien. Konferenser 31), Stockholm. 1998: "Visjoner, galskap og

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