Authors:S. Waheed, N. Siddique, Q. Hamid, and M. Chaudhry
INAA and AAS techniques have been employed to determine 40 elements in soil of a municipal waste dump in sector H-11, Islamabad.
Background soil was also analyzed to study the extent of contamination of the dump site soil. Most of the major elements in
these soils represented the geochemical composition of the soil in this area. The enrichment factors for quantified elements
identified high Sb and Mg contents that could be attributed to the presence of PET and food materials in the waste. Geo-accumulation
Index (Igeo), Pollution Index (PI) and the Integrated Pollution Index (IPI) have also been calculated for all elements. The values for
these indices show that municipal waste has distorted the soil ambiance and the soil of waste dump site is slightly to moderately
polluted as compared to the background soil. The dump soil was found to be moderately polluted by the elements Ba, Br, Ga,
Rb, Zn, Ni and Pb. Significantly high Cu, Mg and Sb contamination was observed for the waste soil that is likely to pose an
environmental issue if current waste disposal procedures are continuously employed.
Authors:A. Berlizov, O. Blum, R. Filby, I. Malyuk, and V. Tryshyn
Capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric air pollution by chemical elements were tested against epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) and Physcia adscendens (Fr.). Concentrations of 40 macro and trace elements were determined using epicadmium and instrumental NAA. The data obtained
were processed using non-parametric tests. A good correlation was found between concentrations of majority of elements in
bark and lichens. On the accumulation capability bark turned out to be competitive with both lichens examined. The main inorganic
components of black poplar-tree bark were revealed. A substrate influence on the concentrations of some elements in epiphytic
lichens was established. An optimized procedure of bark pre-irradiation treatment was suggested.
The assessment of environmental pollution of the coastal areas of the Malaysian Peninsula was done by analyzing the contents of the heavy and trace elements in the bivalves blood clams (Anadara granosa) and green mussels (Perna viridis) and sediments at twenty-two sampling stations to look for prevailing trends. Heavy and trace elements analyzed in this study were As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Se and Zn. Two techniques, namely the neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were used in the quantitative determination of the heavy metals while Marine Sediment Reference Material (BCSS) and Lobster Hepatopancreas (TORT-1) provided the certified reference materials in the quality assurance control. The potential use of these bivalves as suitable bio-indicators was evaluated from correlation tests based on the concentrations of heavy and trace elements in the sediment-metals system to those in the bivalves.
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Akram
The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents
from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect,
it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this
context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations
of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values
of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively
which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence.
After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents.
Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended
by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS).
Authors:A. Yusof, V. Thanapalasingham, and A. Wood
Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were employed in the determination
of heavy metal concentrations in water, plant and sediment samples to assess the extent of heavy metal pollution in a river
system which is located within an industrial zone. Elemental concentrations of As, Pb, Hg, Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn were measured
in the samples. Statistical analysis was performed on the data obtained to look for trends in the pollution pattern of these
elements on the river system. The trend in concentrations of heavy metals pollution in water samples is in the order of Zn
> Cu > Ni > Cr > As > Pb > Hg > Cd, whereas in plants the order is Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > As > Hg > Cd and in sediments
Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > As > Hg.
Radon emanation from surface water and groundwater samples has been studied by using CR-39 and LR-115 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). A calibration method for determining the thoron and radon concentrations of the water samples studied has been developed. The effect of pollution due to coal fly ashes, cement and granite dusts on the radon emanation from water samples has been investigated. The influence of the radon source on the radon emanation rates from water samples has been studied.
Many plastic products have relatively short life cycles. Upon final destruction, inorganic additives used for pigmentation, as polymer stabilizer or as flame retarding agent are being released to the environment. In a rapidly increasing way governmental authorities are setting limits to the use of inorganic additives, in particular cadmium, in plastics. INAA has attractive characteristics which may make authorities decide to select it for the control programs in relation to the enforcement of pollution standards. In this paper, an evaluation is made of the use of INAA for such analysis; analysis protocols, sensitivities, and observed levels of other trace elements are being discussed.
Uranium and thorium contents were determined in samples of various plants in the soils in which the plants were grown, and in herbal infusions made by boiling the plants in potable water, using CR-39 and LR-115 solid state nuclear track detectors. In addition, radon and thoron alpha-activities per unit volume inside the plants, soils and herbal infusions were measured. These measurements were completed by an investigation of the radon transfer between soils and plants and that between plants and herbal infusions, and also by the investigation of the influence of pollution due to different material dusts on the radon and thoron alpha activities inside the plants and their infusions.
Authors:Z. Chai, Q. Qian, X. Feng, P. Zhang, N. Liu, W. Feng, M. Kuang, H. Wang, and Y. Zhang
The occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at one iron and steel complex was studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis of workers' hair samples and medical examination. The experimental results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the high inhalation amounts of iron and other trace elements by the exposed workers and the symptom of their high blood pressure and hypoglycemia, which implies that the atmospheric environment polluted by iron and steel industry has an adverse health impact on the exposed workers. The measures to relieve and abate the occupational diseases caused by air-borne particulate matter should be taken
Authors:A. Gaudry, S. Zeroual, R. Cherkaoui el Moursli, A. Guessous, A. Chouak, A. Mouradi, T. Givernaud, M. Moskura, and R. Delmas
The heavy metals bio-accumulation ability of algae was studied along the North Atlantic Morrocan coast. Instrumental neutron
activation analysis was used, to determine concentrations of various elements. The k0 standardization method was used. Some interferences corrections, particularly due to high concentrations of uranium were
applied. The quality of the method was checked by using the CRM 140, a Fucus provided by IAEA. Important pollutions appear
for several heavy metals from the Morrocan phosphate industry, with respect to the natural background environment.