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This commentary supports the argument that there is an increasing tendency to subsume a range of excessive daily behaviors under the rubric of non-substance related behavioral addictions. The concept of behavioral addictions gained momentum in the 1990s with the recent reclassification of pathological gambling as a non-substance behavioral addiction in DSM-5 accelerating this process. The propensity to label a host of normal behaviors carried out to excess as pathological based simply on phenomenological similarities to addictive disorders will ultimately undermine the credibility of behavioral addiction as a valid construct. From a scientific perspective, anecdotal observation followed by the subsequent modification of the wording of existing substance dependence diagnostic criteria, and then searching for biopsychosocial correlates to justify classifying an excessive behavior resulting in harm as an addiction falls far short of accepted taxonomic standards. The differentiation of normal from non-substance addictive behaviors ought to be grounded in sound conceptual, theoretical and empirical methodologies. There are other more parsimonious explanations accounting for such behaviors. Consideration needs to be given to excluding the possibility that excessive behaviors are due to situational environmental/social factors, or symptomatic of an existing affective disorder such as depression or personality traits characteristic of cluster B personalities (namely, impulsivity) rather than the advocating for the establishment of new disorders.

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Neuropeptide substance P (SP) has reinforcing and memory facilitating effects after its peripheral or central application. Rats self-inject SP into the ventromedial caudate-putamen and SP microinjections into the basal forebrain induce place preference with a simultaneous increase of dopamine level. In the amygdaloid body SP positive neurones and terminals have been identified. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible reinforcing effects of SP in the basolateral amygdala (ABL). CFY male rats were conditioned in two-compartment passive avoidance paradigm and place preference was examined in two-compartment-box and in circular open field. Animals were microinjected bilaterally with 10 ng SP, 100 ng SP or vehicle solution (0.4 ml/side) into the ABL. Results showed that post-shock infusion of 10 ng SP significantly enhanced passive avoidance learning while 100 ng SP was ineffective. In two-compartment-box and in circular open field place preference did not develop after SP treatments, however. Our data are the first to demonstrate that SP in the ABL is involved in learning and memory processes related to aversive situations. Results that SP microinjections were not followed by rewarding-reinforcing consequences in place preference paradigms indicate that the local SP network in the ABL is not involved in neuronal circuitry responsible for addictive behaviour.

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-year follow-up of a school-based preventive intervention. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors , 15 (4): 360-365. Preventing binge drinking during early adolescence: one- and two-year follow-up of a school-based preventive

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, D. E., Spring , B., Cook , J. W., Neumann , C. A. (2004) Reinforcement expectations explain the relationship between depressive history and smoking status in college students. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 991

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Starting with the typology of action as conceived by Max Weber the explication of the terms introduced by him shows that these concepts are by far too crude and that he omitted several important types of action. On the one side, affective behaviour and emotional action have to be differentiated since the latter is by no means irrational. Fritz Heider for example spoke of a "logic of emotions" decades ago. On the other side, rationality in the sense of "Zweckrationalität" has to be conceived as a from of addictive behaviour. It is true, as Gary S. Becker has shown, That we can speak of rational addiction", but it is clear that if person  becomes totally dependent on a drug or an ideological goal, his behaviour becomes selfdestructive and this can hardly be named "rational". A third serious problem of Weber's typology of action is that he never made quite clear what a "value rational" ertrational) action means. On the basis of the so called "pattern variables", defined by Talcott Parsons, and this theory os socialisations an attempt is made in this article to delver an explication of the term of "Wertrationalität" (value-rationality). On the basis of the 5 pattern variables, each being conceived as consisting of five dichomoties, 32 possible action orientations are dervied, and some of these can be identified as different types of rationality. If we conceive "Wertrationalität" and Zweckrationalität" on this basis, we find that "value rationality" always implies a more complicated calculation than "Zweckrationalität". Furthermore, it implies often enough, that not all the means should be used , even if a person could dispose of them. Seen on the short run, "value-rational" orientation therefore implies a  handicap if a person has to compete with a "zweckrational" actor. Therefore one schould expect an evolutionary process by wich "value-rational" actors are omitted from the social system as "loosers". A detalied analysis shows, however, that persons with a universalistic value  orientation have a superior chance to from common value systems with those who are also universalistically oriented, if they act in a value-rational way, and that they therefore have superior chances in the competition with "zweckrational" actors on the long run. A second very serious disadvantage of "zweckrational" actors was detected already by Max Weber himself: "Zweckrationalität" itself becomes  in its purest form an addiction. Success is sought in this case only because it is successful. If success is the ultimate goal of "zweckrational" orientation for its own sake (as a thrill), action becomes totally irrational. This will be the consequence, because  no material goals exist anymore, and the ultimate goal of action gets a formal character. Therefore the final result of "zweckrational" action is a basically nihilistic orientation.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Robert F. Leeman PhD, Julie A. Patock-Peckham, Rani A. Hoff, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Marvin A. Steinberg, Loreen J. Rugle, and Marc N. Potenza

Characteristics of adolescent past-year gamblers and non-gamblers in relation to alcohol drinking Addictive Behaviors 32 80 89 . K D

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contexts versus alone. Addictive Behaviors , 27 , 393–404. Jarchow A. College student heavy drinking in social contexts versus alone Addictive Behaviors

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young people. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1844–1857. Kuntsche, E., Knibbe, R., Engels, R., & Gmel, G. (2007). Drinking motives as mediators of the link between alcohol expectancies and alcohol use among adolescents. Journal of

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Emotions in moral judgement: Do not forget an evolutionary perspective

A review of Roger Giner-Sorolla (2012) Judging Passions: Moral Emotions in Persons and Groups. Psychology Press Taylor & Francis Group, London New York, 2012 ISBN 978-1-84872-068-8

Journal of Evolutionary Psychology
Author: Dieneke Hubbeling

J.A. Paty 2005 The Morning After: Limit Violations and the Self-Regulation of Alcohol Consumption Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 19 253

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Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 18 2 100 105 . H. Rosenberg 2009 Clinical and laboratory

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