Authors:Lisette M. Maico, Annie M. Burrows, M. P. Mooney, M. I. Siegel, K. P. Bhatnagar, and T. D. Smith
Most studies on mammalian vomeronasal organ (VNO) have been on laboratory-bred animals. Our present study examines the VNO in wild-caught meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus; n=16) and prairie voles (M. ochrogaster; n=15). These species vary in their mating strategies and degree of parental care by males. M. ochrogaster exhibits pair bonding and more paternal care compared to M. pennsylvanicus, a promiscuous species. We hypothesize that sexual dimorphism will occur in the promiscuous species based on previous studies which suggest that those who exhibit more aggressive or masculine behavior have larger VNOs. Our results support our original finding that VNOs are not different in size in wild Microtus spp. that vary in male parental tendencies. However, the present study also indicates that M. pennsylvanicus, the species exhibiting more disparate parental tendencies, exhibited larger VNOs in females than males. This is the reverse of previous findings on rats, and we hypothesize that this difference may be due to mate selectivity and/or maternal aggression.
Authors:Anna Linda Nógrádi, Iain Cope, Márton Balogh, and János Gál
The authors present eight cases of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in guinea pigs from the Department and Clinic of Exotic Animal and Wildlife Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary between 2012 and 2016. Seven animals were operated on and two survived. Gastric torsion has been noted in many mammalian species. Gastric volvulus has a high morbidity and high mortality rate with a guarded to poor prognosis in all of these species. How GDV develops is still not widely understood. Postmortem examinations, in both our cases and previously reported cases, have failed to reveal the exact causes of the gastric torsions. The aetiology of gastric torsion in guinea pigs is probably multifactorial. Feeding fewer meals per day, eating rapidly, decreased food particle size, exercise, stress after a meal, competition, age, and an aggressive or fearful temperament, are all likely and potential risk factors for GDV development in a similar fashion to dogs. Sex, breeding, dental diseases, anatomical abnormalities, pain and pregnancy may also be contributing factors.
Pedological and coenological investigations were made around the villages of Alsószuha and Gömörszőlős, in the Putnok Hills microregion, which forms part of the Northern Hungarian Mountains. These were complemented with laboratory nutrient analyses, giving the opportunity to compare the pedological relationships and erosion of natural and ploughed areas. Arable lands can often be found on steep slopes. The brown forest soil types characteristic of these areas are less sensitive to erosion, but they suffer significant damage when cash crops are hoed regularly even on steep slopes.Coenological data indicative of the previous farming system are presented for three plots near Alsószuha. Regular mowing resulted in a large number of plant species even 10 years after cereal production was abandoned. The lack of regular mowing on a plot with a similar farming history, however, resulted in the dominance of aggressive weeds. The species on the third plot showed that the 42 years that had elapsed since cereal production was abandoned, followed by grazing until 1990, ensured enough time for revegetation and the generation of a secondary grassland (slope steppe) in a close-to-natural state. Invasive weeds were absent from all the observed plots.
A 2010 banking survey of 42 foreign bank executives by Price Waterhouse Coopers ranked competition from “domestic” Chinese banks as their primary concern. This outranked the “regulatory environment” which had been number one for the previous two years. Several reasons were cited by foreign bank managers but three stand out: (1) declining market share for foreign banks due to reduced number of multinationals doing business in China, (2) foreign banks reluctance to lend locally due to the global economic slowdown, (3) the aggressive lending strategies of Chinese banks. This paper focuses on the new reality of contemporary Chinese banking practice. We believe Chinese banks are learning and adapting. They are gaining expertise in a wide array of bank operations such as asset management, branching, securities, leasing and many more. To better understand the nature and context of growing Chinese bank competitiveness, we introduce and apply the concept financial “econiche”. Financial econiche refers to the learning and adapting that takes place in a specific financial “ecological” surrounding with attention paid to the macroeconomic need for harmonious development. Econiche theory borrows heavily from similar ideas in the natural world. We construct an evaluation indexation system based on the econiche theory, and use Huaxia bank as a case study.
Authors:György Ledniczky, Gábor Bognár, Csaba Diczházi, Bíborka Bereczky, Loránd Barabás, and Pál Ondrejka
A dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) a törzs és a felső végtagok ritka, fibrohystiocytás tumora, amit lokálisan agresszív, lassú növekedés, igen gyakori recidíva és ritka metastasisképzés jellemez. DFSP az emlőben irodalmi raritás. Esettanulmányunkban a 65 éves beteg jobb emlőjében, többszöri fibroadenoma és neurofibroma kimetszését követően kialakult, fibrosarcomás átalakulást is mutató DFSP-t mutatunk be perioperatív, szövettani és immunhisztokémiai fényképsorozattal dokumentálva az igen nagy nonphylloid sarcoma mastectomiával és axillaris blockdissectióval történt eltávolítását, hisztológiai és immunhisztokémiai jellemzőit.
Authors:D. Huang, H. Zhang, M. Tar, Y. Zhang, F. Ni, J. Ren, D. Fu, L. Purnhauser, and J. Wu
Stripe or yellow rust (Yr), caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. (Pst), is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide. New aggressive Pst races can spread quickly, even between countries and continents. To identify and exploit stripe rust resistance genes, breeders must characterize first the Pst resistance and genotypes of their cultivars. To find new sources of resistances it is important to study how wheat varieties respond to Pst races that predominate in other continents. In this study we evaluated stripe rust resistance in 53 Hungarian winter wheat cultivars in China. Twenty-four cultivars (45.3%) had all stage resistance (ASR) and 1 (1.9%) had adult-plant resistance (APR), based on seedling tests in growth chambers and adult-plant tests in fields. We molecularly genotyped six Yr resistance genes: Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr17, Yr18, and Yr36. Yr18, an APR gene, was present alone in five cultivars, and in ‘GK Kapos’, that also had seedling resistance. The other five Yr genes were absent in all cultivars tested.
The task of economics is apparently changing. After confronting the limits to growth, the economic interests, methods and thoughts, even its use of words and concepts are slowly but persistently modified. The discussion of “equilibrium” is replaced by the concern for a “sustainable path”. Instead of finding out how to produce “more” it looks for “better”, “cheaper” and “recyclable” commodities. Labor saving serves by and large the reduction of the working week and transformation of the life-cycle instead of surplus-production. The markets of developed countries are more easily glutted and their recessions deeper. The ever louder and more aggressive marketing attests to all this. It is high time to renew our old ways, to revisit the aged analytical and forecasting models. The renovation of obsolete concepts is rendered necessary to facilitate the introduction of an orderly and planned future of prudence. This investigation focuses less on the seldom, perhaps never occupied point of equilibrium, rather on the behavior and motion of the economic systems in its vicinity.
During the analysis of the protagonist's (namely, Sharik's and Sharikov's) way of speaking in Bulgakov's story Heart of a Dog, an abrupt contrast or even a complete oppositeness of the constituents becomes apparent. In its turn, this provides the base and evidence for this ultimate oppositeness of the protagonists in the story in general. Sharikov's speech is mainly characterized by the following features: 1) absence of skills of monological speech manifested by the violation of norms of constructing sentences and by the tendency towards using short and concise sentences, 2) violation of lexical and grammatical norms, 3) abundance in colloquialisms, 4) frequency of generalized and demagogic constructions, 5) presence of officialese and ideological clichés. It is Sharikov's speech and his way of speaking that enables the reader to make conclusions about his figure in general, and determine the most important characteristic features of his inner self which are as follows: 1) low cultural level, 2) aggressiveness and growing confidence in his own right, 3) belonging to the layer of uneducated, uncivilized and often declassed people.
Authors:L. Majoros, G. Kardos, I. Pócsi, and B. Szabó
Data of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species isolated during the 1997-2000 period in the Medical and Health Science Center of the University of Debrecen are analysed. The number of yeast isolates increased from 408 to 1213 per year during this period. Dominance of C. albicans has been persistent, but a slight increase of C. glabrata and C. krusei could be observed. Distribution of different Candida species isolated from 16 body sites indicates that C. albicans seems to be still the most aggressive Candida species. Investigation of 244 urinary Candida isolates (parallel with bacterial cultures) suggests that tha aetiological role of Candida species in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections can be hypothesized if colony forming unit (CFU) number of yeasts is higher than 104/ml and bacteria are present in low CFU number or are absent. Antifungal susceptibility testing of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. krusei against Flucytosine, Amphotericin-B, Miconazole, Ketoconazole and Fluconazole suggests that Amphotericin-B is still the most effective antifungal agent. Finally, the problems in judging the aetiological role of isolated Candida species in the pathogenesis of different types of diseases are critically discussed.