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Abstract  

A method of efficiency calibration for the measurement of 88Kr and 138Xe by HPGe γ-spectrometer is proposed in the present paper. The question for the efficient calibration is, how to achieve homogeneous sources of 88Kr-88Rb and 138Xe-138Cs. The fission product gases were obtained by irradiating a precisely measured amount of U3O8 (90% 235U) filled in a quartz glass ampoule. Source cell was first filled up with stearic acid, and then the fission product gases were charged into it. Xenon and krypton are not adsorbed on stearic acid, therefore, homogeneous sources of 88Kr-88Rb and 138Xe-138Cs can be prepared. The results of the experiment demonstrate that the method is feasible and successful.

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Abstract  

The reaction calorimeter CAP202 (chemical process analyzer) determines thermal effects by measuring the true heat flow (THF) based on unique design principles. In particular, measurements can be performed without requiring any calibration procedures and the obtained results are most reliable and exhibit extremely stable baselines. The benefits in respect of experimental speed, data quality and long term performance are obvious. Due its broad dynamic range the instrument can be employed for measurements ranging from small physical heat to energetic chemical reactions. The CPA allows running experiments seamlessly with reaction volumes between 10 and 180 mL. This volume flexibility simplifies the investigation of multi-step operations and is the basis for various applications employing precious or highly energetic compounds. Due to the fact that calibrations are not required, altering conditions during a single experiment like changes in viscosities, liquid levels or stirring speeds do not affect the results of the measurements.

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Abstract  

Intra-hepatic administration of radioactive glass microspheres is a treatment for patients with primary liver cancer and hepatic metastases. The purpose of this study was radionuclide purity assessment of new glass particles containing two radionuclide, 90Y as a therapeutic source and also 177Lu as a source of diagnostic gamma. For the mixed source, activity measurement using a dose calibrator cannot be used and we need new calibration methods. YAS (Yb) and YAS compositions were sol–gel derived glass particles and production of 90Y (177Lu) and 90Y particles was performed using the Tehran Research Reactor. The radionuclide purity was carried out using γ-spectrometry with HPGe detector. A non-destructive spectroscopic assay was employed due to a newly updated low uncertainty positron branching ratio of 90Y that emit 511 keV annihilation radiations. In another method, a new calibration of 90Y using a non-destructive spectroscopic assay of 88Y were investigated. Potential radionuclide impurity include: 88Y, 152Eu, 60Co with activity 100, 50 and 5 Bq per 1 mg of that are not harmful for patients due to delivering radioactive particles about 20–50 mg in 90Y(177Lu) glass microspheres. Among of radionuclide impurity, 152Er with a half life of 13.54 years and 88Y with a half life of 106.65 days was important in the residual delivery device. For calibration of 90Y with monitoring of 511 keV, errors were12.2–21%. In calibration of 90Y using gamma spectroscopic assay of 88Y, there was an error less than 14%. Spectroscopic assay of 88Y can be performed easily and has more repeat for our purpose.

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Several organic compounds like phenanthrene, benzanilide, anisic acid, triphenylene, 2-chloroanthraquinone, hexachlorobenzene, carbazole, 4-iodobenzoic acid, perylene, anthraquinone, as new reference materials for temperature and energy calibration of DTA and DSC apparatuses were studied in the range 300—600 K.

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Abstract  

Temperature calibration of DSCs is usually carried out on heating. In order to accurately control the temperature during cooling experiments, the calibration has to be carried out on cooling. Therefore, three high-purity, thermally stable liquid crystals were used to perform a temperature calibration of an electrcial compensation DSC on cooling. All three liquid crystals have several liquid crystalline phases, and they all were purified to a 99.9% lovel. Temoperatures of the isotropic to nematic or cholesteric and the mesophase to mesophase transitions were used. It was verified that these liquid crystals have sufficient thermal stability for carrying out the calibration on cooling. The dependence of the real temperature on the indicated temperature has been established for all the combinations of the heating and cooling rates of practical interest. It is also shown that the vant's Hoff equation can only be applied to the crystal to a liquid crystal transition, but not to the liquid crystal to liquid crystal or liquid crystal to isotropic transitions.

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Abstract  

Many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized reference phantom. Prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) provides the only direct measure of total body nitrogen (TBN), an index of the body’s lean tissue mass. In PGNA systems, body size influences neutron flux attenuation, induced gamma signal distribution, and counting efficiency. Thus, calibration based on a single-sized phantom could result in inaccurate TBN values. We used Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP-5; Los Alamos National Laboratory) in order to map a system’s response to the range of body weights (65–160 kg) and body fat distributions (25–60%) in obese humans. Calibration curves were constructed to derive body-size correction factors relative to a standard reference phantom, providing customized adjustments to account for differences in body habitus of obese adults. The use of MCNP-generated calibration curves should allow for a better estimate of the true changes in lean tissue mass that many occur during intervention programs focused only on weight loss.

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Abstract  

The radionuclide 131I has been increasingly used in nuclear medicine therapy procedures. Nowadays, the 131I source administered to the patient is manufactured in two different geometries: solution and capsules. The purpose of this study is the accurate measurement of the activity present in a 131I capsule without destroys it. The methodology to determine the capsules activity is to obtain the calibration factor of an IG12 secondary standard activity measurement system based on the IG12 well-type ionization chamber set up at Brazilian national metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation (LNMRI) of institute of radiation protection and dosimetry (IRD).The result obtained, 6.4670 ± 0.0381 × 10−18 A Bq−1, is quite similar to the calibration factor of the 131I solution contained in the standard ampoule geometry, 6.4515 ± 0.0368 × 10−18 A Bq−1. After obtaining the calibration factor it was used to measure 131I therapy capsules in order to check the performance of radionuclide calibrators of some Brazilian nuclear medicine centers.

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Abstract  

The feasibility of the INAA of samples in the kg range has been demonstrated in 1994 byOverwater et al. In his studies, however, he demonstrated only the agreement between the corrected -ray spectrum of large samples and that of small samples of the same material. In this paper, thek 0-calibration of the IRI facilities for large samples is described, and some ofOverwater's results for homogeneous materials are presented again, this time in tems of (trace) element concentrations. It is concluded that large sample INAA can be as accurate as ordinary INAA.

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Abstract  

Calibration standardization of X-ray fluorescence method was carried out for the determination of the anorganic contents in diuretic herbs as calledFolia Betulae, Stylus Maydis, Flores Verbasci, Equisetum Arvense andFlos Helichrysi, growing in Turkey. These herbs are widely used in pharmacy and public health for kidney disease theraphy. Herb samples were steeped in the water and mixed through the pure cellulose, then pelletized in the intermediate thickness. An annular source of109Cd (3.7 MBq) was used for excitation of fluorescent K lines of elements lying between potassium and zirconium. Toxic elements in considerable amounts were not found.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Justin McIntyre, Mathew Cooper, April Carman, Theodore Bowyer, Anthony Day, Derek Haas, James Hayes, Tom Heimbigner, Charlie Hubbard, Kevin Litke, Michael Ripplinger, Brian Schrom, and Reynold Suarez

Abstract  

Absolute efficiency calibration of radiometric detectors is frequently difficult and requires careful detector modeling and accurate knowledge of the radioactive source used. In the past we have calibrated the β–γ coincidence detector of the Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) using a variety of sources and techniques which have proven to be less than desirable (Reeder et al., J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 235, 1989). A superior technique has been developed that uses the conversion-electron (CE) and X-ray coincidence of 131mXe to provide a more accurate absolute gamma efficiency of the detector. The 131mXe is injected directly into the beta cell of the coincident counting system and no knowledge of absolute source strength is required. In addition, 133Xe is used to provide a second independent means to obtain the absolute efficiency calibration. These two data points provide the necessary information for calculating the detector efficiency and can be used in conjunction with other noble gas isotopes to completely characterize and calibrate the ARSA nuclear detector. In this paper we discuss the techniques and results that we have obtained.

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