Authors:Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Nik Abdul Rahman, and Abdul Samian
Sungai Mas was an ancient port-kingdom located on West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia in a district of Kota Kuala Muda, Kedah,
Malaysia. The port-kingdom evolved as an entrepot since fifth century AD and continuously visited by international trader
from India, China, Middle East and Europe until eighteenth century AD. Sungai Mas was also one of the Indo-Pacific beads making
centers in Southeast Asia since sixth to thirteenth century AD and also produced pottery and brick. X-ray fluorescent analysis
(XRF) on Sungai Mas Indo-Pacific beads is carried out to determine whether the glass beads originated from Arikamedu, India
or locally made by community in Sungai Mas. Totally, twenty-two samples of beads and beads materials assayed by XRF were chosen.
Contents of nine major elements and nine trace elements, which might be present of flux, stabilizer, colorants or opacifier
were examined. The elements Si, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Mn, Mg, Cu, Pb, Zr, Sr, Ba, La, U, Ni and Cr were detectable in all
samples. The concentration of elements found are discussed in terms of flux, silica or lead base glass, color and/or opacity
of the glass beads and glass samples. The result showed that Sungai Mas produced their own Indo-Pacific beads from sixth to
thirteenth century AD.
Authors:M. Busetto, L. Giordani, A. Brandone, C. Cattaneo, and A. Mazzucchi
Bone is an important mineral source for the entire organism especially for Ca, P, Na and trace elements like Sr, Mg, Zn and
it is the reservoir for the storage and mobilization of many important ions required for the metabolic activity of the organism.
The concentration of these elements are influenced by the individual diet and the content of some trace elements can be utilized
as indicators of the diet of ancient populations. Bones from three differents archaeological sites found in Lombardy, Northern
Italy, were investigated: (A) Roman necropolis found in Milan active from the 1st century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D; (B)
Burial of the Longobard family found in Campione d'Italia (North of Lombardy) active between the 7th and 9th century A.D.;
(C) Medieval necropolis of a Longobard community, found in a village near Cremona (SE of Lombardy) active in the 7th century
A.D. Structures of bones and their trace element content seem to put in evidence on some differences in the way of life of
the three investigated groups.
Results obtained by measurement of radioactivity have traditionally been associated with an expression of their uncertainty,
based on the so-called counting statistics. This is calculated together with the actual result on the assumption that the
number of counts observed has a Poisson distribution with equal mean and variance. Most of the nuclear scientific community
has, therefore, assumed that it already complied with the latest ISO 17025 requirements. Counting statistics, however, express
only the variability observed among repeated measurements of the same sample under the same counting conditions, which is
equivalent to the term repeatability used in quantitative analysis. Many other sources of uncertainty need to be taken into
account before a statement of the uncertainty of the actual result can be made. As the first link in the traceability chain
calibration is always an important uncertainty component in any kind of measurement. For radioactivity measurements in particular
we find that counting geometry assumes the greatest importance, because it is often not possible to measure a standard and
a control sample under exactly the same conditions. In the case of large samples we have additional uncertainty components
associated with sample heterogeneity and its influence on self-absorption and counting efficiency. In this paper we prepared
an uncertainty budget for existing data for 137Cs in Danish soil, which is shown to account adequately for all sources of uncertainty.
Twelve biological-matrix, agricultural/food reference materials, Corn Stalk (Zea Mays) (NIST RM 8412), Corn Kernel (Zea Mays) (NIST RM 8413), Bovine Musele Powder (NIST RM 8414), Whole Egg Powder (NIST RM 8415), Microcrystalline Cellulose (NIST RM 8416), Wheat Gluten (NIST RM 8418), Corn Starch (NIST RM 8432), Corn Bran (NIST RM 8433), Whole Milk Powder (NIST RM 8435), Durum Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8436), Hard Red Spring Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8437) and Soft Winter Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8438) were developed. They were characterized with respect to elemental composition via two extensive international interlaboratory characterization campaigns providing 303 reference and informational concentration values for 34 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, F, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V, W, Zn) of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance. These products are available to the analytical community, for quality control of elemental composition analytical data, from the Standard Reference Materials Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
The series of papers presented in this issue of Journal
of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry is a selection of papers delivered at
the conference TERMANAL 2005. The conference has a long, almost 50 years’
tradition. The period of the conferences changed several times; at present,
the conference is organized with the periodicity of 2 years. 17th
TERMANAL was held on 2–5 October 2005 at Star Lesn,
which is situated in the High Tatras region. The forests in High Tatras were
heavily damaged by the hurricane in November 2004; despite that, the region
belongs to beauty spots of Slovakia.
organizer of the conference was the Slovak Group of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
(SGTAC). 60 participants attended the conference, mainly from Slovakia and
Czech Republic, but also from Poland, Hungary, Austria and Belgium. The scientists
dealing with inorganic and organic materials, ceramics, glass, pharmacy, polymer
science and TA methods and instrumentation presented 3 plenary lectures, 7
key lectures, 11 lectures and 20 posters. The sponsorship was provided by
the companies TA Instruments, Mettler-Toledo and Shimadzu.
conference TERMANAL was initially intended to be a local forum for the discussion
within Czech and Slovak thermoanalytical community. However, the number of
participants from abroad is continuously increasing. In 2003, the participants
decided to organise TERMANAL as an international Central-European conference.
This target was partly met at TERMANAL 2005 and it remains the topic of our
effort for future.
Prof. Peter Šimon
Department of Physical Chemistry Faculty of Chemical
and Food Technology
Authors:R. Venkataraman, F. Bronson, V. Atrashkevich, M. Field, and B. M. Young
The In-Situ Object Calibration Software (ISOCS) and the Laboratory Sourceless Calibration Software (LabSOCS) developed and patented by Canberra Industries have found widespread use in the gamma-spectrometry community. Using the ISOCS methodology, one can determine the full energy peak efficiencies of a germanium detector in the 45 keV-7 MeV energy range, for practically any source matrix and geometry. The underlying mathematical techniques used in ISOCS (and LabSOCS) have undergone significant improvements and enhancements since their first release in 1996. One of these improvements is a spatial response characterization technique that is capable of handling the large variations in efficiency that occurs within a small region. The technique has been in use in ISOCS and LabSOCS releases since 1999, and has significantly improved the overall quality of the close-in and off-axis response characterization for HPGe detectors, especially for Canberra’s Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors. In this method, the detector response is characterized by creating a set of fine spatial efficiency grids at 15 energies in the 45 keV-7 MeV range. The spatial grids are created in (r,&) space about the detector, with the radius r varying from 0 to 500 meters, and the angle & varying from 0 to π. The reference efficiencies for creating the spatial grids are determined from MCNP calculations using a validated detector model. Once the efficiency grids are created, the detector response can be determined at any arbitrary point within a sphere of 500-meter radius, and at any arbitrary energy within the specified range. Results are presented highlighting the improved performance achieved using the gridding methodology.
Ing. Zdeněk Šolc, CSc (21 September 1931–30 September 2006)
Prof. Zdeněk Šolc was born in 1931. After finishing his university
studies, he joined the University of Pardubice where he remained for more
than 50 years. He started to work at the Department of Physical Chemistry.
His main fields of interest were: preparation of monocrystals, crystallization
from solutions, measuring of physical and chemical properties of solutions.
In the 1960's he turned to inorganic technology, studying inoranic pigments
and he moved to the Department of Inorganic Technology. In this vast area
of science, he achieved his greatest successes, and pigments became his ever-lasting
passion up to the end of his life.
The research in the field of
crystallisation was oriented to development of liquid crystals for use in
temperature indication, and materials for integrated circuits; besides that
a school of inorganic pigments was formed (M. Trojan, Z. Šolc, D. Brandov)
whose main orientation is mixed oxide materials for use in ceramics and enamels.
A predominant part of the mentioned research activities was pursued at KAnT
in 1990–1996, when the Department was headed by Professor Ing. Zdeněk
Most of Prof. ŠolcŠs projects were focused
on the reactivity of inorganic pigments and powder materials, research of
their high-temperature syntheses and rating of their physical and chemical
properties. He applied mainly simultaneous thermal analytical techniques:
thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis using dynamic measuring conditions
and quasi-isothermal and quasi-isobaric ones, moreover emanation thermal analysis
and thermal conductivity measurements.
Prof. Zdeněk Šolc
was a creative scientist. He published more than 50 scientific papers in international
journals and wrote 10 textbooks. He was the author of almost 100 lectures
of conferences held in the Czech Republic and foreign countries.
had a silent but a very kind personality and he will be missed very much both
by the local and the international communities.
2007 . Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE) . Official Journal of the European Union , L
Authors:Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Marianna Makádi, Márta Fuchs, Ádám Csorba, Erika Michéli, Ibolya Demeter, András Táncsics, and Tamás Szegi
, K. , Singh , R.D. , Patra , A.K. , Sahu , S.K. , 2013 . Probing of microbial community structure, dehydrogenase and soil carbon in-relation to different land uses in soils of Ranichauri (garhwal Himalayas